The purpose of this study was to find composite criteria for the development of better and more useful diagrams of the cardiovascular system, for use in health education. Diagrams of the cardiovascular system were collected from the texbooks and printed materials used at schools and health service institutions, and were classifed in the order of abstractness. Several of the better diagrams were selected, and their characteristics were analyzed. In addition, 1372 students of all ages were asked to visualize and draw the circulatory system of the human body. Only 353 students were correct in their expression of both systemic and pulmonary circulation. Through the other drawings, authors noted misconceptions about the cardiovascular system. Taking into account these misconceptions and the 7 characteristics derived from our study, the authors developed a suitable diagram of the cardiovascular system, for use in health education.
Sixty six stream water samples and 198 drinking water samples from five districts in Tohoku Province were collected to examine the effects of pollution by waste water and smoke from metal mines and smelters. All samples were analyzed for heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Al) and non heavy metals (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, P) using an inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) and an atomic absorption spectrometry. Reservoir water in sedimentation basins was a major cause for river contamination of metals and in present survey, the water from the two sedimentation basins flowed into and polluted each tributary stream, but had not effects upon these main streams. The important water contaminants of metal in mine areas were Cd and Zn in heavy metals, K, Mg and P in non heavy metals. On the other hand, the concentrations of Na and Ca were higher in control area. In present study, many drinking water were spring water in mountains and therefore these metal concentrations were very low. But the heavy metal concentrations in drinking water in mine areas using the large in scale smelters like Osarizawa and Kosaka were higher.
One hundred fifty eight rice, 153 potato and 762 urine samples from 24 sections at 5 districts in Tohoku Province were collected to examine the regional property on mine areas. Rice and potato samples were analyzed for heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Al) and non heavy metals (Na, K, Mg, Ca, P, Si) using an inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) and an atomic absorption spectrometry. Urine samples were analyzed for Cd, Cu and Zn. The results showed that, with rice, the concentration had the closed interaction with the river contamination of metals, but with potato, with the property of soil. In non heavy metal in rice and potato, Mg and P indicated high values in mine areas, and Na and Si, in control areas. Urinary Cd concentration showed the highest value in Osarizawa which the concentration of heavy metals in rice and potato were lower than Kosaka. We pointed out that this discrepancy resulted from the difference of past exposure contents between these two districts.
Seven hundred sixty two urine samples from the inhabitants in mines and the control areas in Tohoku provinces were collected to examine the effects of heavy metal on some physiological changes of inhabitants in mine areas by field survey. These samples were analyzed for urinary metals (Cd, Cu, Zn, Ca, Pi), cyclic AMP and Hydroxyproline. Cadmium concentration in urine increased with one in rice, but the case of Cu was completely contrary to the result of Cd. Urinary Cd concentration were higher in farmers, mine interests and multiparals delivered over six times, but urinary Cu and Zn concentration were low in mine interests. Cadmium in urine showed a similar tendency with Cu, Zn and Ca in urine both male and female, but not with Pi in female. Female group with high Cd concentration in urine showed high urinary cyclic AMP level. The results did not show that there were a tendency between urinary Cd and Hydroxyproline except on old women group.