This study employed a longitudinal design to examine the psychosocial correlates and risk factors for depressive Symptomatology among undergraduate students. We determined the cross-sectional relation of the psychosocial variables to depressive symptoms at Time 1, and also identified the psychosocial risk factors for the emergence of depressive symptoms at Time 2. Self reported questionnaires were conducted using a sample of 532 students of a university in Okinawa, Japan. We assessed depressive symptomatology by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) at two different times 3 month apart. The psychosocial variables examined were life stressors, type A behavior, self-esteem, locus of control, coping style, perceived social support, and health practices. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the relation of the psychosocial variables to depressive symptoms. After controlling for the effects of demographic and other variables, many psychosocial variables such as life stressors, self-esteem, locus of control, coping style including accepting responsibility and planful problem-solving, father support, and mother support were associated with current depressive symptoms. Life stressors also acted as risk factors for future depressive symptoms. Students experienced high level on life stressors had a 10-fold increased risk for the onset of depression as compared with those had low stressors. These findings may be useful to identify high-risk students who need more intensive prevention programs for depression.
The presence of the cagA gene and the genotype of the vacA gene have been associated with the virulence of Helicobacter pylori. The aim of this study was to characterize the genotypes of these genes in Japanese H. pylori isolates. H. pylori strains isolated from 50 patients with gastric cancer and 50 subjects who were diagnosed as atrophic gastritis or normal. DNA was extracted from each strain, to determine the presence of the cagA gene and the genotype of the vacA gene using polymelase chain reaction. The cagA gene was positive in all strains isolated from patients with gastric cancer and 94% of strains isolated from control subjects. The vacAgenotype was sl/ml in all strains. These results suggest that most H. pylori strains are the virulent genotype in Japan. While the high frequency of strain with the virulent genotype might play a role in the extended atrophic gastritis and the increased incidence of gastric cancer in Japan, it precludes its use as a phenotypic marker of the virulence of Japanese H pylori strains.
Objectives: This study examined trends in mortality due to unintentional injuries between 1968 and 1997. Methods: Data from Vital Statistics of Japan were used to depict trends in mortality due to road traffic injuries, falls, drowning, suffocation, fires and poisoning, by sex and age group, particularly of children under 5 years of age and the elderly aged 75 or over. Results: Mortality of unintentional injuries was rapidly reduced in the early 1970's owing largely to a dramatic decline of road traffic injuries. It, however, began to rise in the late 1980's because of increasing mortality of home injuries such as falls, drowning and suffocation. In order to take age into account, we examined the trends by age group and identified that mortality due to falls, drowning and suffocation has actually increased in the elderly. On the contrary, in the past 30 years a remarkable decline was seen in mortality due to suffocation among infants and drowning among children. Conclusions: In aging society, home injuries are becoming more eminent with the elderly, depriving of their life and affecting their quality-of-life. Effective interventions, as evidenced in prevention of child injuries, will ultimately help alleviate social and economic losses due to unintentional injuries in later adulthood.