This paper focused on malaria epidemic in Ryukyu Islands during World War II with special reference to Yaeyama Islands to prove whether malaria outbreak in Yaeyama in 1945 was unusual, by reanalyzing published data by various researchers and unpublished documents of the U.S. military Government that occupied Ryukyu Islands from 1945 to 1972. The following results were obtained: 1) Outbreak of malaria in the Ryukyu Islands in a period from 1945 to 1947 was caused by great alteration of biologic balances due to military operations by Japanese Army. 2) Compared with those in Miyako and Okinawa Islands, fatality from malaria in Yaeyama in 1945 was extraordinarily high. 3) Forced evacuation of the inhabitants to malaria endemic areas by the Japanese Army caused exceptionally high incidence, mortality and fatality in Yaeyama. 4) Of species of malaria parasites, malignant P, falciparum was predominant in Yeayama. P. vivax was preponderant both in Miyako and Okinawa Islands . 5) In Okinawa Islands, intensive mosquito control measures were initiated by the US Army when they landed the Island in April 1945. But in Miyako and Yaeyama Islands, only partial chemotherapy was administered, not full scale mosquito control activities . In conclusion, unusual outbreak of malaria epidemic in Yaeyama in 1945 was mostly attributed to the forced evacuation of the inhabitants to malaria endemic areas by the Japanese Army.
We distributed a self-administered health questionnaire known as the Todai Health Index (THI) to a group of 191 women, aged 18-22 (average 19.7), who were at the time students in programs of nursing or public health nursing. This sample was divided into three groups on the basis of subject's answers to the question "Do you tend to go to sleep and get up early?" The subjects were classified as "early risers", "night owls" or "intermediates" according to their predilections . The THI yields twelve numerical scores assessing the degree of proneness to various conditions. We developed profiles of the groups using the t-test on the twelve scores as well as the discriminant values for the psychosomatic and neurotic scores. We would not be able to find out consistent trends which we hypothesized between the above question and the THI's twelve numerical scores and two discriminant values. Among the three groups, the intermediate group proved to be the most diffuse in the pattern of its daily cycles. It became clear that it would be difficult to compare the three groups directly. However, the THI's scale, "Irregularity of daily life" measuring the degree to which a person's life lacks a regular rhythm showed the highest degree of correspondence with the above typology. Taking the 25% who scored the highest on this measure and comparing them with the lowest 25%, we found that none of the former reported being early risers, and more reported waking late than those in the regular rhythm group. The regular rhythm group tended to report noticing fewer symptoms of physical or mental ailment. They tended to be emotionally more stable and calm, less prone to depression or anxiety and showed few signs of neurosis or psychosomatic illness. We concluded that the THI's irregular rhythm scale, "Irregularity of daily life" helps in classifying subjects according to the type of lifestyle as well as allowing us to quantitatively distinguish early risers who follow regular schedules from night owls who follow irregular schedules.
Knowledge and curing art of traditional folk medicine on Aguni Island in Okinawa were studied in relation to their practical significance in the present life. Thirteen informants were asked of the semantics and practical use of 12 conceptual words meaning "coolness and/or fatigue" in their traditional etiology. A cluster analysis classified them into three groups: Group A consisting of the words which solely mean "fatigue"; group B of those with more complicated meanings for physical conditions, together with "coolness"; group C of only "siira" which has many meanings concerning unhealthy conditions. The words of groups B and C express more serious conditions to be cured than those of group A. The fact that the words of groups B and C are used less frequently at present suggests that the decrease of their use has taken place in modernization of lifestyle. In regard to their traditional curing art, 24 vernacular names for skin diseases were selected to confirm the symptom contents and concrete ways of treatment. They were classified into five types: use of plants, animals, and other materials; elimination of the affected parts; removal of "bad blood"; magic; and natural cure without any treatment. The curing arts which have been preserved and thus are still used are exclusively practiced by specific curers and their basic concept is dominated by supernatural cosmology.