Spearman's rank correlation between the death rates of 3 selected cerebro-cardiovascular causes and the level of civilization were calculated. The purpose of this study is to see how much the level of industrialization and cultures of the population involved would reflect upon above mortality rates according to different prefectures of Japan. The observation were done in 1970 for 1) "chronic rheumatic heart diseasl", 2) "ischaemic heart disease" and for the 3) total of heart diseaes, namely "chronic rheumatic heart disease", "ischaemic heart disease" and "other forms of heart disease" and for 4) "cerebrovacular disease". The Asahi National Ntrength '71 ('71MINRYOKU)-the level of civilization- was used to draw sources for the level of industrialization and the cultural standard of the population in the 46 prefectures of Japan. 1n regards to the level of civilization, levels used for this calculation were, 1) total national strength, 2) "level of industrialization" and the 3) "cultural standard" . Significant negative correlation were seen in "cerebrovascular disease" with "total national strength" and the "cultural standard" in both men and women. Also significant negative correlation were found in total of heart diseases with all 3 levels of national strength in men, and in "chronic rheumatic heart disease" it was found only in men with "total national strength". The results obtained were beyond our expectations in some ways and considerable reasons and prospects for the future trends for these diseases were briefly discussed.
Intant mortality rates of Gif u Prefecture are higher than those of average values in all Japanese countries since in 1947 except of a few years. In this paper, therefore, were discussed the regional differences and their factors of infant mortality rates in order to find a clue decrease them in Gifu Prefecture. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The regional differences of infant mortality rates are recognized when the data from mean values of five years (1968-1972) in Gifu Prefecture were analyzed by each rural and urban. 2. Infant mortality rates were negatively correlated with the numbers of beds, physicians per population and were negatively correlated with proportions of the hygienic costs, the numbers of persons aged 15-64 and persons graduated from universities. Infant mortality rates were positively correlated with proportions of the numbers of third or more live birth, the unmbers of people engaged in the primary industries, the numbers of livelyhood assistant household and with the persons of family per one household. 3. There is a significant correlation between one and another variable which are correlated with infant mortality rates. The partial correlation coefficient which was calculated in this paper showed that infant mortality rates were negatively correlated with the numbers of beds per population and positively correlated with proportions of people engaged in the primary industries.
The "Cohort Phenomenon" was reported firrt on English data on the death rate from peptic ulcer in the War time by Susser, which means the findings of the fixed level of death rate by ageing of age-group for several years after the exposure to the agent that was a psycho-somatic stress from the war. In this country, Japan, we have not enough reports on the cohort phenomenon on death rates from diseases, yet. In this paper we presented a cohort phenomenon showed on the death rate from heart diseases (B26, 28 and 29) after the War in Japan. The trace of death rates from heart diseases of each 5-years-old class gives approximate straight lines by years from 1940 to 1970 in both sexes on a semi-logarithmic section paper, and these lines show a counter-clockwise rotation almost showing a center near the point that is made by cross-ing of scales of 65-years-old of age and of 450-per-100, 000 of death rate in male and of scales of the same of age and of 400-per-100, 000 of death in female. The rotation of death rate lines is made from what that, younger age-groups under 65 years-old of age show almost the same death from heart diseases in these 30 years and older ones show rapid increaing of death rate in the same period in the opposition. Namely, those who are in age groups under 65 years-old of age show cohort poenomena in thses 30 years in Japan. The rotation of death rate lines show the highest speed between in 1955 and in 1960.
When 19, 900 persons that died in the Yamanashi Kyoto district during the 289 years from the middle Edo era to the present according to the necrologies available at 7 temples in the district in which diseases as causes of death are scarcely entered were classed into two age groups, ie, one aged not less than 10 years and the other aged less than 10 years, and by each month, the death curves in the two groups showed the respective characteristic patterns. A survey was also made by a similar method on 8073 persons that died during 82 years and are entered in the necrology of an O temple in the Hida district in which diseases as causes of death are entered. As a result. the death curves of the two groups in this district showed the respective characteristic patterns according to the kinds of infections. When the death curves due to small pox, typhoid, measles, dysentery, which were so obtained were compared with the death curves in the Yamanashi district, it was found that these infections followed very close courses in the two districts, though there were some lags between the districts. In both the Yamanashi and the Hida district, it was noted that the major causes of death in the aged group were typhoid, cholera, influenza, famine, battle, and those in the younger group, small pox, measles, dysentery. Moreover, each kind of disease, showing its characteristic pattern, was often recognizable. Severe famine and big battles were overlapped or complicated by these diseases, to make the disasters more serious. The disease structure in the pre-war period was fundamentally altered from about 1955 on. The deaths due to infection and tuberculosis and those of neonates that had persisted since the Edo era drastically decreased, to be taken over chiefly by adult diseases in the post-war period. Seasonal alterations in the causes of death in the year show such a pattern that the peak deaths due to infection and and the peak deaths of neonates in summer that had persisted to and including the Meiji era have been overcome, to disappear in and after 1955. Annual and decadal alterations in the causes of death were then examined epidemiologically, and this disclosed the status of outbreak of infections and the occurrence of famine that had varied from district to district. Long-term alterations in the distribution of these causes of death by age showed the predilect ages of deach due to infection, death due to famine and death in battle, the frequencies of them, and the complications by them, and further disclosed alterations in the disease structure. When the causes of death in the Hida Takayama district were compared with those in the Yamanashi Kyoto district, the disease structures in the two districts during the past about 300 years proved basically close to each other, but there was marked difference in the occurrence of famine or in the outbreak of cholera between the two districts. We have proposed a method which is capable of unraveling the causes of death of inhabitants all over Japan during the period of from the middle Edo era to the present, based on the actual reliable status of death according to the necrologies, even if not filled in with diseases as causes, witn reference to the local history and to the chronological tables of Japanese and local histories as presented in the foregoing.