Dex7elopment with age of neuromuscular control for preservation of standing posture was followed up in primary and middle school students of Tokyo, Nagano and Sado districts (3956 in total). The procedure of the test used was composed of making them stand on one leg with eyes open or closed and recording its duration until they lost balance. The results are classified into three groups i. e. (i) under 5 seconds, (ii) between 5 and 10 seconds and (iii) 10 seconds and longer. The percentage frequencies of these groups in each grade are shown in table 1 and Fig. 2. These figures show that the general trend of the development of this ability follows the so-called neural pattern. The averages of the record were calculated, counting the record of group (iii) as 10 sec. (Table 5 and Fig. 1). Differences among districts and between sexes were also investigated. It was concluded: (1) The ability of preserving standing posture develops with age, showing what Scammon called neural type of developmental curve. (2) Local deviations and intersexual difference are not evident. (3) Full development of this ability is attained in the 7th grade.
this report results of biometrical survey of physique in the following aspects is presented; length of upper limb, length of upper arm, length of forearm, length of hand, girth of upper arm, girth of forearm, leg length, length of thigh, length of tibia, length of foot, girth of thigh, girth of calf. The results are shown in separate tables 1-12. 1) In the average, the length of upper limb, length of hand, leg length, length of tibia, length of foot of Koreans are somewhat larger than those of the Japanese. Length of upper arm, length of forearm, girth of forearm, length of thigh, and girth of thigh are smaller than those of the Japanese. The girth of upper arm and girth of calf are larger in males whereas smaller in females than those of the Japanese. 2) The relative leg length in youth is smaller in males than in females, but this difference gradually diminshes with age and above 9 years it becomes larger in males than in females. SUMMARY OF THREE CONSECUTIVE REPORTS The author made a biometrical survey of physique of healthy Koreans, from the new-born to the old age (7132 males and 5030 females totaling 12, 162), and studied standards of growth and biometrical indices in the following aspects: height, weight, span of arms, horizontal girth of head, maximum glabello-occipital length, maximum width of head, maximum interzygomatic breadth, girth of chest, antero-posterior diameter of chest, transverse diameter of chest, sitting height, breadth of shoulders, distance between iliac tubercles, girth of waist, length of upper limb, length of forearm, length of hand, girth of upper arm, girth of forearm, leg length, length of thigh, length of tibia, length of foot, girth of thigh and girth of calf. These data are compared with those of Europeans and Japanese. Discussions on each aspect that were stated in Reports I, II, and III, are not repeated here. The following is confined to the general summary. 1. Age of completion of growth is showed in the accompanying table I. Table I. 2. The age at which the curves of growth for males and for females cross each other is shown in the accompanying table II. The girth of chest, ratio of chest diameters, antero-posterior diameter of chest, transverse diameter of maximum glabello-occipital length, interzygomatic breadth, breadth of shoulders, leg length, girth of upper arm, girth of forearm, length of forearm are larger at all ages in males than in females. 3. The results in adult-newborn ratio of growth in some measurements are shown in table III. 4. These results in Koreans were compared with the results in Japanese and European reported by other authors; and the following were pointed out. The difference between Koreans and Japanese in physique and its growth is much smaller than that between Koreans and Europeans.
1. Monthly incidence of Artificial Abortion in Nagano Prefecture amounted 1, 900 which figure represents 10-12 cases per month per l, 000 population. This corresponds to every third pregnant woman undergoing the operation. 2. Ratio of still-birth including total cases of artificial abortion based on the Eugenic Protection Law has been strikingly high. In Nagano Prefecture it was 145.3 per 1, 000 birth in 1949; 277.1 in 1950; and as high as 410.4 in August 1951. 3. Decrease in 1950 of birth rate in Nagano Prefecture is regarded mostly due to artificial abortion. 4. List of disorders notified as the respective reason of artificial abortion is headed by pregnancy toxicosis with marked annual increase. Tuberulosis and other diseases are on the decrease. 5. So-called early interruption within three months of pregnancy is steadily increasing. 6. Interruption in younger women is also increasing, although still below the national average. 7. Of the applied techniques, curettage increased to preponderance, i. e. 75.5% while the Aburel's procedure decreased to 3.7 S. a half as compared with the figure of the prevous period.
The blood group in Mongolian soldiers at Pairing-Myao in Uran-Chapp was examined. Of 102 individuals tested, 27 belo ged to “ 0”, 24 to “A ”, 39 to “B”, and 12 to “AB ”. The biometric findings of the Mongolian soldiers at Pairing-Myao are as follows: The body length is 166.85cm>m161.85cm, head length is 187.5mm>m ___183.1m. mh, ead breadth is 156.6mm _rn_-152.2mm, and head span index is 84.6m>82.2. The head span index of the Lama priests (Mongolians) in ilran-Chapp province is 84.4>m>82.0, and of the Chinese at Tatung is 85.1>m83.5.
Five constitutional indices derived from reliable body measurements on 605 Japanese (in Kinki district), 312 Koreans (Southern), and 115 Amami-Oshima natives between 21 and 39 years old were studied. 1) In the Pignet index, there is remarkable difference between the Japanese and the other two races. This index may be applied for classification of thin type and the obese type. The lowest index numbers of the thin type are aobut 13 in the Japanese, 10 in Koreans, 9 in Amami-Oshima natives. The highest index numbers as to the obese type are considered about 32 in the Japanese, 29 in Koreans and 27 in Amami-Oshima natives. 2) In the Westfthal index, there is much difference between Koreans and the other two races. This index may be useful for classification of the thin type and the robust type. The highest values of the thin type are about 47 in the Japanese, 52 in Koreans, and 46 in Amami-Oshima natives, while the lowest values in the robust type are conisidered about 29 in the Japanese, 30 in Koreans, and 28 in Amami-Oshima natives. 3) In the Kretschmer index, the result shows much difference between the Japanese and Amami-Oshima natives. The distribution curves of this index on constituticons are intercrossing so that it is difficult to illustrate the constitutions with this index. 4) The Wertheimer index is specific to each and is availalbe to distinguish the thin type in those three races, though it is not applicable to Germans, The thin type index ranges from about 30 to 52 in the Japanese, 24 to 56 in Koreans, and 29 to 50 in Amami-Oshima natives. 5) The Vervaeck index shows much difference between the Japanese and the other two races. We intend to suggest that the indieces below about 80 in the Japanese, 83 in Koreans and 83 in Amami-Oshima natives belong to the thin type, and above about 91 in the Japanese, 93 in Koreans, and 94 in Amami-Oshima natives belong to the obese type.