We have tried to classify the health/medical services administration in Okinawa after World War II into five periods and to describe the trends of major communicable diseases and causes of death for each period. First period (1945-49, the period under the administration of the U.S. Military Government (USMG)): In those days, the major activities of health/medical services for Okinawa Civilians were first, supplying food and second, controlling acute communicable diseases; especially, malaria which was very prevalent. USMG executed an aggressive sanitation program which included DDT spraying. Second period (1950-51, the period during which the USMG administration turned control over to a civil administration): Acute communicable diseases were eradicated by the aggressive sanitation control, but chronic communicable diseases - leprosy, tuberculosis, venereal disease and others became more prevalent. USMG issued many ordinances to affect "control of communicable diseases". USMG especially showed deep concern for controlling venereal disease and established district health centers and began free treatment for venereal disease in these centers. Third period (1952-64, the period of full-scale construction of U.S. Military bases): Markets, crowded houses, slums, so-called red-light districts and other similarly difficult living situations developed around U.S. Military bases with the full-scale construction of the bases, and chronic communicable diseases, especially, tuberculosis were very prevalent in the 1950's and 1960's. However in the 1960's the death rate due to tuberculosis decreased gradually as did the rates for gastroenteritis and pneumonia or bronchitis. On the other hand, the death rate due to adult diseases such as cerebrovascular disease, cancer, heart disease and others increased year by year. Fourth period (1965-71, the period of a great increase in financial and technological aid from the Government of Japan to Okinawa): The period started from the time when the late Prime Minister Mr. Sato made a speech on his visit to Okinawa in 1965 that a medical school should be established in University of the Ryukyus. From that time the financial and technological aid from the Government of Japan to Okinawa was substantial. A vaccination program to fight tuberculosis for health personnel, families of tuberculosis patients, students of the first and second year of junior high school was established in 1966, and consequently the morbidity rate due to tuberculosis decreased year after year. Fifth period (1972-, the period after Japanese laws were applied). After the application of Japanese laws, the condition of health/medical services in Okinawa improved considerably. The mortality and morbidity rates due to adult diseases increased significantly as the rates for communicable diseases declined.
This author has previously announced "The Study of the Death Register of 0 Temple in Hida", and has recorded results in a book of the same title. I have also studied many death registers belonging to the temples in Takayama and its surrounding town, Kokufu and Kamioka. I studied the number of deaths in each town, in each month of each year. The evidence of a sudden increase in smallpox victims is clear in the notes of O Temple. In discovering subsequent sudden increases in victims in other towns, I confirme dthat the disease then spread to those towns. The results of my study show the route of contagion and the time factors involved, and also reveal related information on trading routes of those days. I was able to ascertain that it took approximately one month for smallpox to spread between towns in inner Hida, and that there was much trade on the route from Miyamura to Kamioka, via Takayama.
Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for 35 causes of death by industry in 1970 and 1975 in Japan are calculated. Eliminating the biases between the base industry population and the number of death by industry, furthermore, the ratio of the SMR for each cause of death to the SMR for all causes by industry is computed. This ratio is nominated as SMRR. SMRR by industry and cause of death is correlated each other according to industry side and also cause of death side. Based on the correlation coefficient matrix, assumed factors are deduced applying the centroid method of factor analysis. Factor one to factor three are determined.(1) SMR is higher than other industries in the "mining" and "electricity, gas, water and heat industries."(2) On the results of factor analysis, (a) malignant neoplasms, (b) pneumonia and bronchitis, (c) automobile and industrial accidents, and (d) drowning and fire accidents, i.e. four groups of cause of deaths are assessed. Profile values of these three factors for each industry are computed. Two distinct groups, open air work place industries and indoor work place industries are found. "Agriculture" and "manufacturing" industries show a similarity of weights of factors. From the factor analysis based on the correlation matrix of SMRR by industry, the same result is found as in- and out-door work place. "Agriculture" and "manufacturing"; "transport and communication" and "fishery and aquiculture" show a good similarity.
This paper discusses the physical growth of children based on the Kaup-Davenport Index. The samples were selected from children who were born in 1972 within the jurisdiction of K Health Center in Tokyo. They have been observed since they were three months of age. The data were collected for each infant as they reached the ages of 3, 4, 6 and 9 months, and later, at the ages of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 years. The results are as follows:1) No sex differences were detected in A(A'), B and C groups classifications determined by the Kaup-Davenport Index at the selected age above mentioned.2) The body types which were initially classified by the Kaup-Davenport Index in infancy were similar to the body types seen at school age.3) It was suggested that eating habits during preschool years were related to the physical growth in early childhood.4) The medical factors observed at 3 months of age seemed related to the body type at 6 years of age.5) Considering the adolescent growth spurt, further investigation will be needed to trace the changes through childhood and the factors which influence them.
Measurement of total mercury in hair of students and faculty peoples concerned in chemical experiments has been made since 1979 with cooperation of Environmental Science Center, University of Tokyo as a health care program. The examinees with relatively high mercury concentrations are investigated regarding their histories and careers in connection with the possibilities of mercury exposure, are examined on their daily diets and the functions of liver and kidneys, and then are adviced on their lives. The following facts have been revealed up to now:1) Total mercury concentrations in hair were log-normally distributed and the upper limit of normal value was evaluated 9.33 ppm in 1980 and 11.0 ppm in 1979.2) Nine samples (8 examinees) out of 428 samples (392 examinees) are found to be of abnormally high mercury values, though they did not mean morbid ones.3) Experiments and works were considered to be a factor of mercury storage in the cases of 2 subjects and unbalanced diet was supposed in another case.4) Five of the seven patients with liver dysfunctions were found to have high mercury accumulation in hair without any particular mercury contacts. However, further discussions are to be made to clarify correlation between each item of experiments of liver dysfunctions and mercury values. Furthermore, on the patients with renal dysfunction, mercury accumulation is likewise to be examined from now on.