The data of body height and weight of school children and adolescents, numbering 37, 446 males and 35, 567 females in the 1995 school year and 42, 971 males and 40, 986 females in the 1996 school year, in the reports which were submitted to the Okinawa Pref ectural Board of Education, were examined for development of screeningmethod for obese individuals. Since there were no significant differences in themeasurements between males and females in any age groups for both school years, the data were pooled for analyses. This study also aimed to develop personalcomputer-based program for this purpose. The major results of this study were as follows: 1. The distributions of body height for males or females in all age groups resemble the normal distribution pattern whereas those of body weight for either sexin most age groups were skewed from normality even after the logarithmic transformation was conducted. 2. The standard body weight was separately decided for each group by gender, age and stature (1 cm in interval) by using the median which was unlikely affected by the outlier values. 3. Of four regression models, i.e. simple regression, power regression and two kinds of polynominal regressions (quadratic and cubic equations), for calculation of the standard body weight, power regression was judged most applicable from the magnitudes of coefficient of determination and coefficient of variation and from the simplicity in calculation. The regression equations are as follows: ln(Y) = ln(a) + b × ln(X) → Y = aXb Using body weight (W) and height (H), ln(W) = ln(a) + b × ln(H) → W = aHb 4.The comparison between the standard weight values obtained by this methodand those by the existing methods revealed significant differences for most age groups. Thus, it was concluded that the screening method specific to Okinawan school children and adolescents is needed. 5. The computer program which was developed in this study is highly suitable for screening obese children and adolescents, arbitrarily changing the standard values and presenting the outputs for classmate groups or individuals. The access to this program is possible with addition of a menu to the program called "Health" which was previously established by the author to synthesize physical checkup data in Okinawa.
This study aimed to examine the effects of physical activities, including daily physical activity and habitual physical exercise, on health and lifestyle and to seek the ways of promotion of health care. Five hundred male employees, aged 20 to 55 years old, were investigated for their health and lifestyle, and 259 of them were subject to examinations of serum lipids. The major findings were as follows. 1. Habitual physical exercise showed more effective results than daily physical activity, in terms of self-care for health, balance of food intake, subjective feel on health condition, increase in HDL cholesterol and decrease in an atherogenic index. Also found were a negative association between exercise duration and atherogenic index and a positive association between exercise intensity and subjective feel on health condition. 2. Increase of daily physical activity tended to trigger increase in the number of health complaints and decrease in frequency of breakfast taken but tended to decrease total cholesterol and triglyceride. When the physical activities were broken down, decrease of health complaints was related to decrease of sedentary activity and increases of walking and sleeping. It was thus suggested that grasp of physical activities by types, improvement of lifestyle such as the habit of taking breakfast and preparation of program for physical exercise played important roles in promotion of health care.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the levels, timing and trends of marital fertility in recent Japan, in which total fertility has been below the replacement level.Using the vital statistics, marital duration-specific fertility rates, broken down by ageat marriage and birth order, for the 1980, 1985 and 1990 marriage cohorts and rates for first birth for the 1970 and 1975 marriage cohorts were estimated, and the related demographic factors were also examined. The major findings were as follows: 1. The cumulative fertility rate at 14 years after marriage, which is regarded as the completed fertility rate, for the 1980 marriage cohort was 2.02. The lower this rate the higher age of women at marriage: 2.20, 2.03, 1.56, 0.70 and 0.12 for the women who married at ages 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39 and 40-44. A comparison among the 1980, 1985 and 1990 marriage cohorts showed slight declines in fertility. 2. An analysis of the parity progression for the 1980 marriage cohort indicated that 93.6% of the couples had the first birth and 80.7% progressed to the second birth and 37.8% to the third or higher-order birth. The proportion of the women by total number of births was as follows: 6.4% childless, 18.1% one child, 47.0% two children, 28.5% three or more children. Also observed were increase in proportion of childless couples and the downward progression from the first birth to the second birth and to the third birth in the three marriage cohorts, and the delayed timing of births in the 1990 marriage cohort in particular. 3. It is suggested that biological, social and psychological factors accounted forlower fertility among the women who married at higher ages. The age-dependent suppressing effects of fertility have probably obstructed achievement of the couple's desired number of children due to delayed marital age in today's Japan. This study also highlights importance of social support for the couple's desired timing of births.
To elucidate the influence of food consumption pattern on blood examination variables, we conducted a dietary survey and blood examination on 94 members of a women's association who lived in urban areas. A principal component analysis was applied to their consumed amounts of foods, which were grouped into 23, to clarify the overall consumption pattern. Using the principal components of each food group, the subjects were divided into two groups according to each individual's score: the negative score group and the positive score group; the differences in the blood examination results between the two groups were analyzed. In addition, the relationship between the food consumption pattern and the principal components of blood examination variables was examined. The following results were obtained. 1. The first principal component was recognized to represent?gtraditional vs. western diet", the former consisting mainly of rice-based food items such as rice, miso, sea weed, fishes and shellfishes and the latter of western diet-based food items such as milk, bread, egg and fats. In the same manner, it was judged that the second principal component represented?gmajor subsidiary food vs. minor subsidiary (processed) food", the former consisting of such food items as fats, miso, beans, green and yellow vegetables and tubers, the third principal component?gmeat vs. fish and shellfish", and the fourth principal component?gpale color vegetables, bread and fruits vs. alcoholic drinks". 2. In comparison of the blood examination results between the positive and negative score groups, significant differences (5% or less) were found in total protein and HDL cholesterol for the second principal component and in uric acid for the third principal component. 3. The principal component analysis based on blood examination variablesrevealed that the four components extracted were judged to represent?gliver function and erythrocyte system", ?gliver function vs. blood cell system", ?gcholesterol system", and "serum protein vs. renal function system". 4. According to correlation analysis between the food consumption pattern and the principal components of blood examination variables, significantly negative correlation was found between?gtraditional diet vs . western diet" and?gliver function and erythrocyte system" and between?gmajor subsidiary food vs . minor subsidiary (processed) food" and?gserum protein vs. renal function system".