This paper explores lay perceptions of health. The purposes of this study are, how women attribute the causality of their symptoms and what kind of coping behavior they think is useful to relieve their symptoms, whether the etiologies related to their coping behavior, and what variables relate to their etiologies and intentions to relieve their symptoms. The subjects were 243 women aged 45-55, randomly sampled throughout Tokyo. Results showed that women's belief system about their symptoms are more internal, such as age or menopause, than external, such as family and community stress. The two most common coping behaviors that women believed beneficial were taking some rest and thinking posi tively. Even after adjusting for the type and the severity of their symptoms, their etiologies were associated with the usefulness of their coping behavior. Some variables related to the eti ologies of symptoms were predictive. However, unpredictable associations were also observed. The research suggests that it is useful to identify relationships of middle-aged women with family, community and even the wider society as well as symptoms themselves to accelerate the relief of symptoms. Also, the results showed that the more social contacts a woman had, the greater the number of coping behaviors she had. It is suggested that social networks in obtaining medical care and information are important when they are ill.
The objective of this study was to clarify the causes of hearing impairment among Chinese people in an urban area. The subjects were 1, 293 citizens aged 6-73 years who lived in the dor mitories of the Shandong Medical University in Jinan, the capital of Shandong Province. Each subject was asked to complete a brief questionnaire on otological symptoms, personal history, and use of noisy plaything. The upper limit of hearing was carried out with sweep oscillators that we originally designed and developed. The subjects were divided into two groups. The sub jects whose upper limit of hearing was the mean or higher than the mean for their sex and age stage were described as the group with good hearing (661 subjects), and the subjects with an upper limit of hearing below the mean for their sex and age stage were described as the group with poor hearing (632 subjects). There was no significant difference in age between the good hearing and poor hearing groups in either sex. The prevalence rates of factors affecting hearing in the poor hearing group were significantly higher in head trauma and otitis media in males and otitis media in females. The logistic regression analysis corroborated that head trauma and otitis media might be the causes of deterioration of the upper limit of hearing among Chinese people in an urban area.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the number of nurses and assistant nurses, the ratio of the number of nurses to that of nurses and assistant nurses (nurse ratio), and the factors that caused changes in the number of nurses, that of assistant nurses, and nurse ratio from 1974 to 1998 in Japan. For these analysis, official information was used. The results were as follows. 1. The nurse ratio increased in all prefectures. In 1998, the ratio was lowest in Kagoshima (47.62%) and highest in Shiga (74.21%). 2. The nurse ratio in hospitals increased from 49.80% in 1974 to 66.97% in 1998. In clinics, the ratio decreased from 30.96% in 1974 to 26.26% in 1988 then increased to 32.77% in 1998. There were no significant changes in nurse ratio in the visiting care stations (82.34% in 1996 and 83.87% in 1998), facilities for the aged (35.39% in 1988 and 35.70% in 1998), and the social welfare facilities (44.32% in 1996 and 45.68% in 1998). 3. The nurse ratio was high in the affluent prefectures. The ratio showed negative correlation with the number of nurses and assistant nurses per one doctor. The number of assistant nurses per one doctor correlated with the ratio of aged persons (Z 65y.o.) and income per person. 4. Prefectures were classified into four groups by the nurse ratio and the number of nurses and assistant nurses per one doctor. The prefectures in each group had common characteristics. 5. Indices expressed per population correlated with quantitative medical needs and that ex pressed per one doctor correlated with economical and population composition characteristics of prefectures.