Two approximately equivalent groups of Japanese and American female college students were asked about their conscious clothing preferences on a 5-point scale. One group consisted of 140 Japanese child psychology/development majors at Otsuma Women's University, and the other group consisted of 140 American counterparts in the University of Oregon. The results of one group were compared with those of the other. The Japanese consciousness, especially, "Kigane" is considered to be a typical defense mechanism and is reflected in their clothing preferences. Although "Kigane" is a difficult concept to translate into English, it is roughly equivalent to "being hesitant" or "feeling constraint" in doing something, being consious of others. Generally, the Japanese students expressed different emotions from American students. The Japanese students chose the clothing that would be most acceptable to others, considering what they would think of them. In contrast, the American students made their choices independent of group influences, choosing what they would like to wear and what was "comfortable" to them. The major difference in clothing preference between the two groups of students could be attributed to the differences in their upbringing, independence, and individuality, as well as more general cultural and social differences.
Since 1945, the death rate in Korea has kept on declining steadily owing to improvement in medical services and public health, while the annual birth rate registered an unprecedented 3% in 1960, a result of the post-Korean War baby boom (1955-60), so the Korean government introduced a national family planning program in 1961 as a part of its Five-Year Economic Development Plan from 1962. This measure had to be taken as the government was aware that without a proper population control policy, it would not achieve rapid economic development within a short period. Due to the nationwide implementation of population control and economic development policies, Korea succeeded in realizing an 8% annual economic growth rate and a drastic decline in fertility. In fact, it took Korea only 20 to 30 years to complete its demographic transition, while in developed countries it took more than 100 years to complete it. During the 30-year period starting in 1960, the Korean total fertility rate (TFR) dropped from 6.0 to 1.6, the crude birth rate (CBR) from 41.7 to 15.6, and as a result, the population increase rate decreased during the period from 3% to within 1% level (KIHASA, 1991a). Providing the present low fertility rate continues in effect, Korea's population is expected to stop growing in the year 2021. This low fertility level is, however, likely to generate a number of problems, including a rapid increase in the elderly population and a shortage of the labor required to restructure and expand industries. It is, therefore, time for Korea to launch a comprehensive scheme to overhaul its existing population policies to meet the need of a society with a low fertility rate (KIHASA, 19911b). This analysis is designed to find demographic and causal factors that contributed to the fall in fertility over the last 30 years and thus to provide a direction in which the nation's future family planning and population control policies should be implemented. Fertility in Korea was consistently high during 1925 to 1944 period with a crude birth rate of about 45 per thousand population. This rate began to decline between 1945 and the Korean War (1950-53). The high birthrate which began in the mid-1950s lasted until 1960, and followed by a rapid decline thereafter. As shown in the figure 1, another rapid decline in the CBR was made in the 1980s. Therefore, the present study was carried out in the form of a comparative study of the 1960-70 and 1980-90 period.
To evaluate the actual condition of the traffic accidents resulting in injury or death of drivers and to assess the factors relating to them in Japan, the data concerning traffic accidents in 47 prefectures in Japan were surveyed and analyzed using multiple regression analysis. The results obtained were as follows. 1) In general, the numbers of traffic accidents resulting in injury or death of drivers/100, 000 persons having driver's licence and the ratio of traffic accident resulting in death of drivers to those resulting in injury and death of drivers in Great Tokyo were the lowest in Japan. 2) The numbers of traffic accidents resulting in injury and death of drivers/100, 000 persons having driver's license in each prefecture had significant positive relation to the total length of national highway and also to the proportion of workers in the secondary industries in males, and to the number of cars retained/total number of persons having driver's license in females. 3) The numbers of traffic accidents resulting in death of drivers/100, 000 persons having driver's license in each prefecture had significant positive relation to the total length of national highway and negative relation to the percentages of drivers with a seat-belt in persons driving a car and the population density in males . In females, they had significant postive relation to the number of cars retained/total number of persons having driver's licence. 4) The ratio of traffic accidents resulting in death of drivers to those resulting in injury and death of drivers had no relation to any considered factors in males or females.
This study is focused on the research and analyses of the actual conditions of junior high school students' life, in which we observe the most remarkable growth of the students. The subjects were the students of H Junior High School, which is located in H Town. Hikawa-gun, Shimane-ken. The percentage of successful collection was 98.3 percent and the data were finally collected from 518 students (including 265 male and 253 female students, and 2 not determined). The results are as follows: 1) More than half of the students get up without being waked by someone, but they have a tight schedule before they leave home, and many of them do not have time to evacuate the bowels. More female students than male students have difficulty in finding time to defecate before leaving home; therefore, female students suffer from fecal stasis . 2) Less than half of the students have breakfast with their family members, and the amount of their breakfast is far less than that of their school lunch. 3) Many of the students go to bed before twelve at night, but senior students tend to sit up late. 4) Many of the students enjoy their extra-curricula sports activities, but ninety percent of them feel fatigued. Fewer senior students enjoy their club activities. 5) The number of the students who take out-of-school lessons is not as large as is expected. Most of the students prepare for their study at home for one or two hours, but senior students do not study at home at all or do not study more than three hours. 6) Many of the students enjoy TV for between one and three hours, and a third of them enjoy "Famicon" (Family computer games). Fewer senior students, and fewer female students find pleasure in it. 7) More female students than male students try and have communication with each other among their family menbers; however, more senior students have little communication with reason of which and the cause of their worry are found in the matter concerning their school lessons. 8) More than half of the students have experienced non-disease type of headache or stomachache, and more junior students tend to experience them.