The parents of three-year-old children who visited a health center for health check-up at M city in one of the most southern islands of Japan in 1984 and 2006 were interviewed for their child-rearing behavior and related factors. The major results were as follows. 1. In 2006, significantly more parents gave “intellectual and verbal stimulation”, utilized nursery schools and made joint decisions concerning night care and child-rearing policy with their partners than in 1984. 2. There was no significant difference between the two years in the ratio of parents who gave physical punishments to their children and/or disciplined them by limiting their behavior. However, ratio of single parents increased from 3.2% in 1984 to 14.6% in 2006, which suggests a qualitative change of child-rearing behavior in two decades. 3. The ratio of the parents who said that they had no expectation for children was 32.9% in 2006 as compared with 22.6% in 1984. That of those who, although they expressed expectations for the children, actually did nothing for that effects, was 29.1% in 2006 compared with 52.1% in 1984. 4. The length of education of mothers and the ratio of mothers who came from outside M city were significantly higher in 2006 than in 1984. 5. Changing child-rearing behavior during 2 decades in M city was discussed in relation with the neglect, a type of child maltreatment. From these results, it is suggested that child-rearing behavior is associated with factors concerning mothers' social background. Also, the change from traditional to modern community is influencing parents' attitude and child-rearing behavior, which may result in a higher ratio of a new type of the child neglect in child maltreatment.. These results suggest the needs of a positive approach to family and community to enhance the quality of children's health and development as a new strategy for the prevention of child maltreatment.
Purpose : This study evaluated the influence of environmental factors at home, in school, and in the community on the smoking and smoking intention among high-school students in Japan. Methods : An anonymous self-administered survey was conducted in June-July 2006 among 3,939 second-year students attending 15 high schools in Japan. The response rate was 89.0%. Results : Among the respondents, 5.9%and 3.9% of the male and female students, respectively, were current smokers. The overall percentage of current smokers in each school ranged 0-21.1%, indicating the polarization of smoking in high-school students. Moreover, the environmental factors associated with smoking prevention significantly affected their smoking intention. At home, both the smoking status of family members and smoking prevention education had an effect on student's smoking intention. In school, factors such as degree of recall of the contents, feeling about the usefulness of smoking prevention education, and knowledge of social trends regarding smoking influenced smoking intention more so than the experience of smoking prevention education. In the community, exposure to image advertising of cigarettes in magazines seemed to promote smoking intention. Attitude toward smoking and the smoking status of friends and parents also influenced smoking behavior in current smokers. Meanwhile, significant influence of environmental factors was observed in non-smoker though it didn't affect in current smoker. Conclusion : The results suggested that improving the students' environment through actions such as smoking prevention education, measures against passive smoking, and making regulation of the image advertisings were effective smoking prevention measures for high-school students, particularly non-smokers. The results further suggested that the implementation of educational measures that addressed the needs for students who had risk for smoking is required.
The purpose of this study was to clarify genetic contributions to the childhood behavioral phenomena of sleeptalking, half-sleeping, night terrors, and nocturnal enuresis using the two largest databases of Japanese twins. The subjects were children of members of several maternal associations for multiples, including 765 pairs ranged in age from 3 to 15 years with a mean age of 7.0 years, as well as school applicants, including 1,140 twin pairs 11-12 years of age. All data were gathered by questionnaire. Structural equation modeling showed that the proportion of total phenotypic variance attributable to genetic influences was 88-96% regarding sleeptalking, 62-91% regarding half-sleeping, and 70-91% regarding night terrors, which were higher in the school applicants group than in the maternal associations group. Age and gender difference was suggested to impact nocturnal enuresis. Moreover, co-occurrence of sleeptalking, half-sleeping, and night terrors were attributed partly to common genetic or environmental factors for these three traits.