We conducted a survey on 384 students (210 males and 174 females, 10 to 14 years old) of junior high school in a rural area of Hyogo Prefecture (Goshiki-cho, Tsuna County), to examine their knowledge for chronic diseases and the cause of death in Japanese adults. We also examined their daily physical exercise, nutritional intake and dietary habits and analyzed the relationship between their knowledge for risk factors of chronic diseases and actual life style. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The students in Goshiki-cho had more knowledge for risk factors of chronic diseases, such as obesity, smoking habits, excess salt intake, than those in other areas did. 2. About 50% of the students at the 1st grade answered that the major cause of death in Japanese adults was traffic accidents. The rate was increased with age to 70% at the 3rd grade students. 3. The students had unsufficient knowledge and misunderstanding about the kinds of aerobic exercise and its favorable effect on health. 4. The students could thoroughly distinguish the foods containing much salts and fiber. However, they had little knowledge about yellow, orange and green vegetables and cholesterol rich foods. 5. Increasing with age, the students tended to have lower amount of healthy foods and to do higher amount of unfavorable foods for health, 6. The degree of self-evaluation for their health state associated significantly with their frequency to take healthy foods, but did not with the daily habit to take unfavorable foods for health.
The authors investigated the physical constitutions and working and economic conditions of women divers-"Ama", who practice "Kachido", on the Korean island of Cheju. Ninety-three subjects were selected from seven different locations on the island, and their heights, weights and chest circumferences were measured. Information concerning age, diving careers, number of working days per year and working hours per day, duration of one dive, diving depth and income derived from fishery were obtained by interview and questionaire. The survey was conducted from July to September, 1983. To ascertain the actual diving conditions, the authors (using scuba equipment) accompanied the "Ama" on their dives. The results obtained are as follows: Age and physical constitution of the subjects were suitable as for "Ama". Diving depth, duration and frequency per day exceeded those for the Japanese "Ama" of Nishi-Izu. Although the Cheju "Ama" (proved) to be superior women divers, the following points deserve further consideration: more self-consciousness of and better administrative participation in the "Auras" health care; reduction of working hours; and, in particular, requirements so as to preserve ocean resources.
Health-related behavior and disease patterns of patients who were cured by either Oriental or Western Medicine were analyzed by a questionnaire survey data conducted on 455 patients in Seoul, Korea, October 1991. These objects were patients who consisted of 218 patients visiting with Oriental Hospitals (POH) and 237 patients in Western hospitals (PWH). The disease patterns of these two groups were significantly different. Diseases of patients who visited with POH were mainly diseases of the circulatory system (70.97%) and diseases of musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (11.14%), whereas diseases of PWH patients were occupied by diseases of the digestive system (10.35%), injury and poisoning fractures (11.67%), and also the circulatory system (10.88%) in the codes of ICD-9. As to comparisons in prevalence of diseases between POH and PWH, transient ischemic attack was prevalent in POH, and diabetes mellitus was dominant in PWH, even though cerebral embolism and hemorrhage were common in both. However, female and elderly patients visited more easily with POH than male and younger generations. It has been made clear that the threshold of visiting POH was independent from sociocultural attributes of residence, income, education, type of health insurance and religion. When this survey questioned also whether Korean Government should promote the integration of Oriental and Western Medicine in the medical policy, 67.8% of the POH patients and 54.9% of the PWH patients respectively agreed it.