A demographic survey was carried out by questionaire for all employees and their families (192, 499 persons in total) in Tokyo as of 195, On the basis of the data of population and deaths thus collected, abridged life tables were constructed for the whole population surveyed and two subgroups of them according to their residence, urban or rural. As indices of health for all ages and age groups the following figures derived from the life tables may be given: The e0, (63.0 years) for males and that (67.9 years) for females, are superior to those for all Japanese and other populations in some occupations. This superiority of the average length of life is due to low mortalities in all age groups except for old people above 55 years. The e0 for the employees and their families living in urban districts is slightly longer than that for those living in rural districts, due mainly to lower mortality of small children. Applying the life tables thus obtained, population dynamics were studied, the summarized results being as follows: The average length of labor years from the age at employment to that of retirement (55 years) is as follows: As cause of deaths the first wg, s senility, intracranial vascular lesions, neoplasmas, tuberculosis being in the rank order. Due to tuberculosis the average length of life at birth was reduced by 1.19 years for both sexes.
Data published in reports of a Scientific Research Group sponsored by the Government and those collected by the author were analysed in terms of geographical, social and environmental differences, and the following result was obtained. 1. Stature of the Japanese race is the highest in urban communities followed by fisliing villages and low in inland rural communities, especially in mountainous places. Inhabitants of small towns and fishing villages are of about the same stature. 2 . As grand averages the author presents 160, 43cm for men 149.13cm for women of the Japanese race to date (1950-1952). These figuresare slightly greater than those of Javanese and smaller than those of most Asian races: Chinese, Koreans, Mongolians, Burmese, Siamese, Nepal and Indian people. 3. Major factors causing the difference between urban and inland rural inhabitants are to be sought in environmental and livelihood conditions rather than selective effect of urbanization. 4. Inhabitants of Tsushima (Tusima) Island in ICorean Channel are exceptionally tall (male, 161.91 and female, 149.83), perhaps mostly due to racial genetic factors related to its geographical location.
The following results have been obtained by examining the so-called “Developmental Curve” which was drawn in applying Hirata's physical judging method to the states of physical development of 706 boys and 727 girls of primary and middle schools in Seto City, Aichi Prefecture, from their first year in the primary School to the present. 1. Six cases in boys and three cases in girls were left out of consideration, as their Developmental Curves were found to be quite mysterious when examined in detail. Errors in height, weight, and girth of chest which are supposed to have come from inexactness in implements, errorneous reading of graduations, lack of training in measuring techniques or carelessness in recording or transcribing were sometimes discovered. Those in girth of chest were particularly remarkable (boys: 13.3%, girls: 9%). 2. When plain errors were corrected and the Developmental Curve of each individual closely examined, it was found that 55.4% of Height D. Curves (D. short for “Developmental ”), 71.4% of Height-Weight D. Curves and 65.4% of Height-Chest D. Curves in the case of boys, and 62% of Height D. Curves; 62.7% of. Height-Weight D. Curves and 59.9% of Height-Chest D. Curves in the case of girls run nearly parallel with standard D. Curves of Height, Height-Weight and Height-Chest. 3. It was made clear on investigating* changes in the physical type that those who develop very rapidly in height are more numerous than those who delay in it (odds of 26.8% for boys and 12.4% for girls), and that most of the boys and girls grow up without causing a marked change in the degree of stoutness or thinness and the degree of wideness or narrowness of the chest (91.6% and 87.3% for boys and 90.3% and 83.7% for girls). This means that the physical type which existed in one's lower school days continues in most cases without much alteration till the time of one's graduation from the middle school. Therefore, the idea that, if only one's height developmen is normal, the degree of stoutness or thinness and that of wideness or narrowness of the chest are of no importance, is inappropriate. 4. When one develops rapidly in height, it has been found that one tends to become stout and of wide chest rather than thin and narrow-chested. 5. So-called delicate health is found to be frequent among school children with retarded physical development, or with abnormal physical development; and those of abnormal physical constitution have a strong tendency to become thin and of narrow chest. 6. The undesirable effects of ceramics, the main industry of Seto City, upon the health are very remarkable, and the physiques of children, though being gradually improvedsi nce the endo f the war, yet havea tendenctyo thin typea nd narrowc hest, which makes vigorous guidance and assistance much to be desired. 7. In a word, it is absolutely necessary for us to draw up Developmental Curve by Hirata's physical judging method, for it not only furnishes us with data concerning the degree of jphysical development, and the present state and progress of physiques of school children and enables us to give them effective guidance for bodily development, but also makes it easy for us to find errors in measuring and recording.