The angular transformationθ=Arcsin√P transforms a probability p varying from 0 to 1 into an angle varying from 0 to π/2 radians and is remarkable in that the amount of information concerning θ is constant. Arcsin√Pmay be written Arcsin√P=√P+1/2 p/3 √P+1·3/2·4 p2/5 √P+……+1·3……(2n-1)/2·4…………2n pn/2n+1 √P+… [Taylor expantion of f (x) about x=p] If a probability p were as small as a death rate, the second term p2/3/2·3 and the following terms 3p2/5/2·4·5+…… would be negligible altogether. Thus, normal deviate for the mortality of any sample community and its standard error Et are calculated respectively as follows: t=2Σ[NA(√PA)/ΣNA], and Et=1/√ΣNA P : age specific death rate for age A among sample community. Pa : age specific death rate for the same age among the standard population. N : the number of persons A years old among sample community. Normal deviate for the mortality of 46 prefectures has been investigated using vital statistics of Japan of 1960: these values were further comparatively studied with the crude or corrected death rates respectively. Naturally, correlation between normal deviate for the mortality and corrected death rate was far higher than that between normal deviate and crude death rate both in male and female populations. It has been deducted by the author that normal deviate for mortality is a useful indicator for evaluating levels of health of communities.
In order to examine the usefulness of proportional mortality indicator for evaluating health level of a community, the indicator of each health center controlled community of the Iwate Prefecture were investigated using vital statistics of the Prefecture in 1960, and the associations between proportional mortality indicator and other mortality or demographic indicator were studied. Proportional mortality indicator proved to be closely related to the agedness of population both in male (r= +0.4658) and in female (r=+0.7374). The demographic structure of the population of a community is rather a result of internal migration, especially urban-rural migration, than a result of experiences of mortality and natality . Taking these facts into consideration, it has been concluded, according to the author's opinion, that proportional mortality indicator, though being a useful comprehensive health indicator to evaluate health level of a country, is not so useful to evaluate health level of a community.
Generation life table can be constructed by following a cohort of, say, 100, 000 persons from the moment of birth through successive calendar years, recording, in each year of life, the actual number of survivors, until all have been accounted for by death . In order to construct the generation life tables, it is necessary to make use of the data of death rates for the period of more than 100 years. But in the pre-census years, the death reports were incomplete and the populations were domicile, and not census enumeration. Hence these early life tables by the Bureau of Statistics before the census are quite unreliable. Therefore Matsuura and Mizushima attempted to reform these pre-census life tables. We used the estimated values of q0-q100 on the basis of these reformed life tables and many reliable life tables, so that we constructed the generation life tables of persons born in 1895. The tables shown here seem more reasonable and appropriate than those which have been known until the present day.
An investigation was done on the familial aggregation of blood pressure levels and the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases in the families of 257 pupils of both sexes at a high school in an inland farm area of the northeast part of Japan. The examination consisted from the items of blood pressure measurement, cold pressor test, electrocardiography, ocular fundus examination, urinary tests and measurements of stature. These data were compared between family groups of hypertensives and normotensives. 1. Polygenic mechanism for blood pressure regulation was suggested by normal distribution of blood pressure levels of the pupils, sex and age adjusted scores and the logarithmic converted blood pressures of the families. 2. Incidence of hypertensive pupils was significantly higher from hypertensive parents than from normotensive ones. The same tendency was established for the morbidity of hypertensives for the parents that the higher the blood pressure levels of the grand-parents the larger the incidence for the parents of the pupils. 3. The blood pressure levels, incidences of myocardial injuries and of cerebrovascular diseases were significantly higher for the group of the grand-parents of the hypertensive parents. However, the tendency was not seen for the group of grandfathers if divided to male and female subgroups. 4. Parent-child relationship indicated by regression coefficient of the sex-age-adjusted systolic blood pressures was almost near 0.0 between the male pupils and their fathers, also between the fathers and the grandfathers. However, the coefficients were about 0.2 and significant between the sets of the daughters and the fathers, the daughters and the mothers, and the sons and the mothers. 5. These findings reveal that familial aggregation of the blood pressure levels is influenced by maternal effects. This might mean that the effects of social and economic conditions of the families are more consistent than the biological inheritance.
The present writer made a follow-up study as to whether abnormal pregnancy and abnormal delivery will have any influence on babies' physical and mental development thereafter. During the period of 6 months, from November 1962 to April 1963, 1439 children were born at M. Hospital. Out of the above children, 48 cases (3.5%) were selected for the study, since they were judged to be abnormal either on the side of mothers or on th side of newborn children. Here as the first report the writer will report on the relationship of abnormality between mothers and newborn children. 1) Abortus immines has been considered to have much influence on the born children . But no significant difference was found in the relationship between perinatal abnormality and children's abnormality. Above all, abortus immines had nothing to do withh asphyxia. 2) Contrary to the previous literature, there was no relationship between toxemia of pregnacy and immature children. 3) 70% of the mothers who gave birth to the immature children showed the sign of toxemia of pregnancy, including two cases showing the sign of oedema alone. But no case with all the signs of Trias was found. 4) There was no significant relationship between toxemia of pregnancy and icterus or asphyxia. 5) The average of physiological decrease rates of weights was likely to be higher in children who were born from normal mothers than in those from mothers who experienced toxemia of pregnancy. But the difference was not significant . 6) Premature rupture has been believed to be a cause for the asphyxia of newborn children. According to the present investigation, however, out of 16 cases of premature rupture, only one case caused asphyxia. Therefore, no result was obtained positively to affirm the traditional belief. 7) There was no significant difference about the relationship between Caesarean birth and children's weight. But on the average, children born through Caesarean operation were heavier in weight. Some people think children who were born through Caesarian section will require more days for the recovery of decreased weights than normally born children. But the present research could not confirm it. In the present investigation conspicuous relationship was not observed between the abnormality at the period of pregnancy and the conditions during the period of the newborn, although no decisive conclusion was drawn because of the small number of the cases.