Since disorders of autonomic nervous system during menstruation have often been discussed, the authoress studied the circulatory function, especially regulatory function on blood pressure in Japanese females as referred to the monthly cycle. Daily observations of pulse rate, resting blood pressure and postural blood pressure reflex were performed for 57 days in 9 girl students. The result obtained was as follows. 1. Resting blood pressure of pre- and intramenstrual periods was found in some cases, more unstable than that in postmenstrual period. But, taken as a whole, no signifant difference was found. 2. Acceleration of pulse rate in premenstrual period is probably resulted from a secondary influence accompaning high temperature. 3. Marked intramenstural retardation of the recovery in blood pressure aftar postural changes was found in 8 cases out of 9, of which 5 cases showed also premenstrual retardation. 4. Circulatory function of the girls, who were experiencing regular menstruation, was fairly well regulated at resting condition. When, however, they were subjected to dynamic postural chauges, they revealed reduced regulatory function on blood pressure.
Many surveys have been made to make, out difference in growth with relation to various regions possessing their own distinctive features. However, they have so far been based only on the comparison and the statistical observation of results obtained through body measurement. To know how developed the students are in their growth, we must observe the degree in which they get mature as well as results of measurements, We judged of skeletal age, which is sustained by Greulich and Pyle, from the results of body measurement and 6. 6-size photoroentgenography of the left hand and wrist of students, 886 healthy boys and 872 girls from 7 years to 15 years of age living in four regions in Nagoya-residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural areas which have distinguishing marks from the others. In addition, we have had this time a survey of menstruation of schoolgirls of junior high schools. The results obtained are as follows: (1) There are different results recognized in body measurement taken among the four areas mentioned above; the residential and commercial regions are superior in stature and the agricultural in weight, and the industrial region is inferior to the other three in both respects. (2) The development of the bone is almost as remarkable in the residential and commercial areas as stature is. (3) The percentage of school-girls who have the menses is greater in the residential and commercial regions and the coming of the first menstruation is also earlier than in the other areas. (4) To see the development of the bone, we have used roentgenography routine film, but we have found that, 6. 6 size photoroentgenography is useful for this purpose.
The author reported the results of a survey which was conducted, for the purpose of studying the actual situation in the household use of water other than tap water an well water, on the 3 rd-grade pupils of all public junior high schools in Chiba Prefecture and the summary of the results is as follows. 1. As a result of a survey which was conducted from September through October 1955 concerning the use of water in each household, with a total of 44, 666 pupils of public junior high schools in Chiba Prefecture as the objects, it was found that the rate of sending in answers in inquiry cards was 82.2%, being equivalent to 8.7% of the whole households in this prefecture. 2. The source of water supply for drinking water exclusive of tap and well waters in Chiba Prefecture was about 3.0% and river water was 0.5% or so. 3. Throughout the prefecture, the rate of utilization of river water as drinking water was 0.75% and broken down by city and county Sawara City located along the Tone River showed such a high rate as 11.8%. 4. Thus it was made known that river water was being used as brinking water with considerable high proportions in certain areas, and as regards water for miscellaneous purposes, the rate of use of river water is, in rural zones (counties), about 10 times as high as that for drinking, indicating that water obtained from rivers still occupies a fairly large proportion in the domestic use of water.
The author made hygienical and bacteriological studies on superficial water (3 places of river water, 1 place of swamp water and 1 place of rain water) in the agricultural zones. 1. As for river water, coli bacilli and enterococci were proved even in the upper streams of the rivers in the mountains. However, considerable difference in number of bacteria, coli bacilli and enterococci between the upper and lower streams was observed. Naturally, the water in the lower streams was much dirtier than that in the upper streams. By the same token, river water in the plain showed more dirtiness than that in the mountains after various examinations. 2. The swamp water of the Inbanuma showed high degree of dirtiness. It was as dirty as river water in the plain, or even dirtier, although number of enterococci was smaller. 3. Coli bacilli were proved in all the tested materials of the reserved rain water (in Toshima of Tokyo Metropolitan District) but the dirtiness was somewhat lighter than that in river water. 4. Correlations between each examined values were stndied. Definite correlation between coli bacilli and enterococci was noted especially in river water of the upper steams, although the correlation in swamp water was different from that in river water. No constant correlation was observed between number of bacteria and coli bacilli or between number of Leiriaa nd enterococci. 5. M.P.N. values on coli bacilli and enterococci were studied using fermentation tube methods, and comparison was done between 3 tube method (M.P.N. per 100 ml. of sample using 3 tubes) and 5 tube method (M.P.N. per 100 ml. of sample using 5 tubes) using swamp water. The ratio of the values obtained from these two methods revealed that values by 3 tube method were apt to be higher than those by 5 tube method. The same material which showed positive reaction on enterococci by 5 tube met hod, reacted negatively by 3 tube method. This result meant that the material with comparatively less dirtiness should have been examined by 5 tube method.
1) The average of height, weirth, girth of the chest, of the neck, of the waist, of the upper arm, of the forearm, of the thigh, of the calf, depth of the chest, breadth of the chest, lung capacity strength of back muscles, right gripe strength, body flexibility and span of arms in the all Canada team were greater than the averages in the Yawata's team. These differences were all significant. 2) Generally physical strength of forwards seem to be superior to the average physical strength of players in other positions. 3) Generally physical strength of half backs seem to be inferior to the average physical strength of social rugby football players. 4) A standard of physical strength was satistically investigated and its chart was made classifying the physical strength into five groups according to the means and its standard deviation. The twenty examined items were of 23 players in the all Canada team and of 26 players in the Yawata iron & steel Co., Ltd. team.
From June 1956 to December 1958, the size of the anterior fontanel was measUred in 1, 549 infants, whose age ranged 0-14 months, in Hongo area, Tokyo. As a result it was found that the size of the anterior fontanel increased in the first 1-2 months after birth and decreased gradually. Compared to the infants in the Meiji era, the infants of to-day are much superior in various physical factors such as body weight, stature, head circumference and others. At the same time the fontanel tends to close early. This is a world-wide tendency. This fact seems to indicate not only an early closure of the fontanel, namely the rapid growth of the bone tissus surrounding it, but the smooth enlargement of head circumfe rence, namely smooth development of the brain which extends the skull. It is supposed that this early closure of the fontanel is greatly related to the change of nutritional state of infants: it is to be ascribed to intake of much vitamins and calcium in infancy and high protein feeding-artificial feeding after the 6 th month and early commencement and early completion of weaning. Beside them, sunshine to infants and mothers' age and physique seem to be correlated. Furthermore, the shape of the fontanel and the type of the head were examined in 672 infants under 2 year of age. The length-width index of the head was larger than in adults and was over 90 in almost all age groups. The shapes of the fontanel was classified into 9 groups. Group A was most frequent and the order of frequency was: A, B, C, B. C, D, F1, and F2. As for the relation of the shape of the fontanel to the type of the head, Group A was frequent in infants with long head and Groups C and D in those with short head. However, as the closure approached, Group A gradually changed into Groups C and D. Among mono-ovular twins their fontanels changed similarly. Abnormalities of the fontanel were found in 2 cases, both in female, which showed no other type of abnormality (e. g. nutritional).
In May of 1957, from the standpoint of constitution-anthropology, 506 healthy male adults, from 21 to 40 of age, of the families living in Inada district, mainly in Yazu County, for more than three generations were measured with R. Martin's somatometers. On the basis of the measures and indices under 24 items which had been adopted by Professor koya's department for the comparison of body type, a constitution-anthropological study was performed. In addition the results were compared with those reported on people in other districts. As racial features the following conclusions were drawn: 1. The average stature was 163.40cm. Sixty-nine per cent belonged to the medium of Martin's classification. 2. The cephalic index was 82.47. Sixty-eight per cent belonged to the brachycephalic type. 3. The zygomatic arch width-mandibular angle width index was 83.16. Eighty-five per cent belonged to the wide type or the ultra-wide type. 4. The comparison with people in other districts by the average type index and the index c orrelogra m revealed that they were closely allied to those in North Shinshu South Korea and Middle Chiba with the average type difference of less than 5.0 under more than 4 items 5. The average type difference to people in Izumo which is geographically near to Inaba was 10.60, indicating that only a light alliance exists. 6. A great racial differance was suspected to Ainos in Hokkaido and people in Hyuga with the average type difference of more than 15.0
The length of human life is known to be influenced by various environmental and hereditary factors. The relations between the length of life and the quality of food, the body structure of school children, and cultural environment were investigated by comparing these factors in the southern Izu Peninsula of Shizuoka Prefecture where many long-lived people are known, with those in the northern mountainous district where the long-lived people are rare. The following results have been obtained. 1) The birth rate, death rate and infantile death rate were lower, and other environmental conditions were better in the longevity district than in the short-life area. 2) The longevity was found most frequenty in the fishing villages, followed with agricultural villages. The short life was mostly found in the mountainous villages, while it was scarce in the fishing and agricultural villages. 3) The length of life was found to be directly proportional to the rice-farming area, especially to the amount of rice and wheat crop. 4) School children and students in the longevity district showed better physical build than those in the short life area, with higher height, slightly larger body weight and wider chest. This tendency was especially marked amohg students of junior high schools.
1) On the counter-measure against dust hazards in coal mines, not only dust from rock but mixed dust must be considered. 2) In case of rock driving, complete wet system throughout the course of driving is very effective to prevent dust hazard. When the distance between driving surface and the aperture of air duct is not more than 7m, the preventive effect is remarkable. These mean that dust concentration of working environment can be controlled less than maximum allowable concentration with the employment of respirator under the preventive measures above-mentioned. The prevalence of pneumoconiosis can be cut down to about 3% under this condition. 3) In case of seam driving, the type of driving is not wet one. The dustiness, however, is much lower than in case of rock driving. Therefore, the incidence of pneumoconiosis is found as 3% in the period of 10.11 years of work. 4) In case of “stall”, if the complete wet system can be employed the dust concentration could be contrlled under the level suggested as maximum allowable limit. However, the satisfactory wet stalling of coal surface is practically not easy to carry out, so that, the prevention of pneumoconiosis is found being rather difficult with 4.5% of the incidence of the disease in the period of 12 years of work. 5) Ventilation is understood very effective and important measure against dustiness. The prevention of leak of ventilation system and the determination of appropriate velocity and volume of air used should he considered in addition to the abolition of serial ventilation system.
The authors had studied on marital status about 1, 594 cases from the reports of pa rents of the junior and senior high school students in the district of Bandai highland The results obtained were as follows: 1) 5.90% of mating, 14.92% of consanguineous marriage and 4.90% of non-consan guineous marriage were found as the mating between persons with the same surnames 2) 25, 31% of marriages between persons of same surnames were consanguineous. 3) The theoretical frequency of same surname by random mating was 2.21%. 4) The theoretical average degree of consanguinity in random mating was 7, 21 deg rees of consanguinity. 5) The frequency of the consanguineous marriage was 9.96% in total area and thi marriages between cousins were 5.96%. 6) The frequency was higher among mountain villagers than those in flat area, an also among lower educated couples than those with higher career. Higher frequency wa also found among couples whose range of mating were narrower, 7) Calculating the presumed numbers among persons whose relations were silent, the frequency of consanguineous marriage made 10.85%. 8) Marriages between persons whose dwellings were in same village made 40.21%. 9) The range of mating of consanguineous marriages was far narrower than those of non-consanguineous marriages. And the higher the education of the couple was, the wider the range of mating. 10) Among the causes of death which were reported in this survey, the apoplexy was pointed out as the most frequent one. Between the numbers of families which had the dead of apoplexy and in which the consanguineous marriages were reported, significant correlation was found by chi-square test.
The blood pressure of night high shcool boys (178) and girls (202) was measured on 3 occasions, in June-July, September and November. The blood pressure level of night high school boys was compared with that of medical students, and the former was characterized by higher systolic and greater pulse pressure. As the cause of such tendency of systolic hypertension in night high school pupils, an elevation of cardiac output should be considered rather than an increase of peripheral resistance. As an etiologic factor of the tendency of such systolic hypertension in night high school pupils, latent deficiency of vitamins, especially of vitamin B complex in diet, was considered. Administration of vitamin preparations for 123 pupils (65 boys and 58 girls) who had systolic 130mm Hg and over was continued for 2 months beginning in September. Differences of variation in blood pressure level during these 2 months between administered groups and control groups were not appreciable.