In this paper, rural health which had been involued in the problems of public health in the early years of the Showa Era, were described.1) In those days, agricultural communities had been the base for supporting capitalism in Japan, however, rural health service was markedly poor.2) Rural health servey was started in 1918, and total number of serveied villages was reached up to 143 in 1928.3) As a result of rural health servey (1918-1928), prevalence number was 210380 out of total serveied population of 136218, therefore, the prevalence rate was indeed 154.4 per 100 servied population.4) Number of villages, in which no physician staied, was 2909, 3231and 3527 in 1927, 1930 and 1934, respectively.
In this paper, maternal and child health, which had been involved in the problems of public health in the early years of the Showa Era, were described.1) From the Taisho era to the early years of the Showa era, birth rate in Japan was around 30 per 1, 000 population, while death rate was around 20 per 1, 000 population.2) In 1926, the infant death rate had been 13.6 per 100 live births, still birth rate was 55.7 per 1, 000 total births, and maternal mortality rate was 27.1 per 10, 000 total births(live birth and still birth).Maternal care was supported, in part, by the Poor Lave(1929), but govermental services for the maternal care not sufficient by the reason of financial panic.Therefore, maternal and child health had not been improved in those days in Japan.
Developmental differences in the Denver Developmental Screening Test items were demonstrated between the 615 Okinawa( Miyako and Yaeyama Islands) chi 1 dren and the 1171 Tokyo children. The children in Tokyo were generally advanced than those in Okinawa after one year of age, while the children in Okinawa demonstrated earlier development in the middle and late periods of the first year. There were also interesting differences between Okinawa and Denver. Okinawa children were initially slow in gross motor development. Denver children were markedly advanced in some of the language items. Ecological and socio-cultural factors which may contribute to these differences as well as the implications of these results for the developmental screening were discussed.
The present paper describes the annual changes in perinatal mortality rates for each district in Gifu Prefecture, the factors governing perinatal deaths, and the factors affecting the differences in perinatal mortality rates among districts. These analyses were done using the data of public health statistics of Gifu Prefecture. The results obtained were as follows.1) Perinatal mortality rates for each district showed a progressive decrease with years. However, the regional differences were still remarkable. It follows from thi s that it is of special importance to reduce the regional differences.2) Perinatal deaths were relalated to: birth weight, gestational age, birth order, single or mutiple birth, sex of foetus or infant, pevious foetal deaths, place of delivery, and attendant of delivery.3) Perinatal mortality rates were inversly correlated with the number of nurses per population and the percent polulation served by public water supply systemOn the other hand, they were positively correlated with: infant mortality rates, spontaneous foetal death rates, standardized birth rates, the proportion of newborns with birth weight less than 1800 grams, the proportion of the 4 th and over live births, the percent population engaged in the primary industries, and the proportion of households with seven and over members.4) The above variables associated with perinatal mortality rates, were significantly correlated with one another. Thus, the partial and multiple correlation coefficients were calculated. These results also demonstrated that perinatal mortality rates were negatively correlated with the number of nurses per population, the percent population served by public water supply system, but positively with the proportion of newborns with birth weight less than 1800 grams.A factor of percent population engaged in primary industries seems to be responsible for the observed negative correlation between perinatal mortality rates and the number of nurses per population or percent population served public water supply system.5) These observations suggest the importance of preventing low birth weight and elavating the level of general public health in improving the regional differences of perinatal mortality rates.