This is the second part of the study on famines, epidemics, socio-economic conditions, and combinations of these before the Meiji era. The great famine in the Tenmei period (1781-88) was discussed. The development of land, advance in commerce and alterations in agricultural policy were closely related to the disaster of famines. During the Tenmei famine, about a half a million people died in Oou district where the weather had been cold and the local government system was misguided. Although three fouth of deaths were caused by malignant influenza, death rate varied considerably from sex, age, social class, feudal clan and characteristics of area such as fishing village, farm village, city, etc. The severity of famine seemed to deter mine the severity of epidemics of diseases.
The genetical factor of the human body height has been studied for a long time; other factors have also been discussed and some reports suggest the influence of the genetical factor be able to be affected by other factors. The author studied on the height genetically as grouping the students of Women College of Physical Education and their parents into the groups of parents, sons and daughters and also classifying them by age. The results are as follows. 1) The coefficient of the correlation between the parent and the children was not varied with the parent′s age. 2) Any remarkable difference was not observed in the correlation coefficient in the respective combinations of the father and the mother with the son and the daughter. 3) The correlation coefficient was found to be partially different in the relation between the parent and the order of the son and the daughter, such as the first child, the second one and so on, but any systematic difference was not recognized. 4) The height of the fathers and that of the mothers was not so different between the values during World war II and after the war, but the height of their children was different. The correlation between sons and their parents was significant, but among the correlation coefficients was found no difference. Considering the above-described correlation between parent and child observed on the group which does not seem to be specific, there is no specific difference found to be among the father, the mother, the son and the daughter, and any difference is not found in the
Death and death rate from peptic ulcer were studied by cohort analysis in Japan, England & Wales, United States and Sweden pre-and post-World War II by 5 yeays period. Until the end of the war, three enemy nations of them showed gradual elevation of death rate in male, but in female except Japan. The elevation of japanese male was a marked one, and english male, american male and japanese female follow in this order. Female in England and US did not show the elevation with both sexes of the neutral nation. Through cohort analysis by 5 years period, the elevated risk to death in the adult age groups showed fixed continuation several years, namely, the?gCohort Phenomenon?h. The elevation of death risk was the highest in japanese male and in senior age group, and the continuation of it was the longest in the same, too. In Japan, the crude death rate from the peptic ulcer showed gradual decreasing after the war, and the transition was shown in the same pattern with socio-economic and cultural background through principal component analysis.
Yonaguni-Island in Okinawa is much particular in the sense that it is situated at the most western in Japan. The authers reffered all the marriage-pairs in this island concerning their birth places, permanent addresses, present address and the year of the marriage, And they were classified according to each categories . By analyzing the data, we obtained the several facts. At the first, the marriage within the island has gradually decreased in these 25years. On the contrary, the number of the marriage with the other Okinawa area has been increasing. Furthermore, limiting within the island, the number of the inter-village marriage has increased, and that of the within each village has decreased. Secondary, there are 427 married-couples at Dec. 1976 in Yonaguni-island . In Sonai, the largest village in the island, 65.5%is the pair which both man and wife were born in this same village. In Higawa, 50% is so. But in Kubura, the pair both are born in this village is amount only to 7.8%. In the aspect of the geographical distribution, Yonaguni-Island was so isolated in the old days. Nowadays, however, most of the young are married with people born outside of the island. In addition, it seems useful to appreciate other findingseg, sero-epidemiological or dietary findings, in terms of the fact these 3 villages show a different pattern con cerning the birth place and the residence.