Verf. hat von 1521 Verbrechern 9 Fälle ausgewählt, die sich Lesonders gut als Schulbeispiele der die pathologische Amoralität abgebende amoralischen Habitualverbrecher eignen, d. h. als Musterbeispiele sog. krimineller Monstra von BOsartigkeit. Durch individuelle Beobachtung dieser Rälle bekam Er folgende Resultat: 1) Kriminologisches: Bei alien Fällen ist die antisoziale Tendenz frühzeitig (seit dem 15. Lebensiahre im Mittel) hervorgetreten. Alle w_rden Rechtsbrecher und verharrfen sich in der kriminalpathologischen Eigenschaft. Ganzes Leben hindurch zeigten sie keine Besserung. 2) Konstitutionelles.: Körperbau und Charakter stimmen in alien untersuchten Fällen überein. Namlich hypoplastisher Typ. mit pyknischer Färbung zeigt schizoiden Typ. mit zyklothymem Einschlag. Ihre Lebensweise ist unstetig und haltlos, parasittisch und vergnügungssüchtig. 3) Psychiatrisches: Immer fanden sich eigentümliche Merkinal2 von “Moral insanity”. Nur ein Fall war schwachsinnig und zeigte Pseudologia phantastica, sonst wurd: n keine Intelligenzabnormitäten konstatiert. 4) Genealogisches: Es wurden keine Verbrecher und Axnoralischen. in ihrer Aszenchnten, Deszendenten und unt'r den Geschwistern gefunden. Wenigstens liess sich keine gleichartige, direkte Vererbung nachweisen. Es scheint dem Verfasser wahrscheinlich, dass der Typus selbst, der dem amoralischen Habitualverbrecher charakteristsch ist, nicht erblich übertragbar ist.
The crude-rates of birth, death and natural increase of population are not the true measureosf the reproductivity, the health condition and the power of increase, because there are two kinds of group in a population, one of which takes part in reproduction and the other does not at all, meanwhile both the birth-rate and the death-rate vary greatly depending on ages of individuals. Therefore for the purpose of comparison, we must correct those rates so as to put them on an equel standing with regard to the distribution of ages and to the proportion of married women. Thus, taking the national census population of Japan in the year of 1925 as the standard population, the author has computed the corrected birth and death rates, and the corrected rate of natural increase of population of various countries including those of Japan herself in the years 1925-28, hence the following table. From the above table the author drew following concwsions as follows. (1) As to the teproductivity, Finland, Italy, Netherland and Japan top the others with Lftle to choose among them, the rest of the countries trailing way behind by something like 30%. (2) New Zealand and Netherland lead the race in the health condition. of people, followed by Denmark and Sweden, with Germany, England and U. S. A. having a hot contest -a themselves to place. among the best five. Next comes the last group including Finland, Italy and France which is having their own race to escape the boobie prize. Poor Japan is out of the race, but is still panting her way along. (3) With regard to the corrected rate of natural increase of population, Netherland rises above others followed closely by Finland and Italy. Japan, who claims the highest crude birth-rate, places fifth in this category. That the rate of natural increase of population in France is much lower than in countries like England, U. S. A. and Germany, is neitherthe proof of her lower birth-rate nor the worse health condition, but is tle result of the difference in the constitution of her population. (4) That the crude birth-rates of European and /A (4m) erican countries are much lower than those of Japan in spite of many women at the ages of being capable of reproduction, is mainly due to the great number of women who remain single. Equally significant is the fact that in England, U. S. A., Germany, and France the pregnancy rate of married women is lowered by the practice of birth control. (5) The birth-rate in Japan has recently been on the decline, which is accounted for by the decrease in the pregnancy rate of women due to the increasing practice of birth control on one hand, and on the other, by the slow change in the constituf on of population. (6) Despite the contradictory factor on the part of the change in constitution of population, which would tend to increase it, the recent death-rate in Japan has shown a marked fall owing to the improvement in the health condition of her people. (7) The rate of natural increase of, population in Japan has lately been inclined to come down. This is solely due to the change in the constitution of her population, because the real power of. increase has been strengthened instead. (8) In Japan the health conditon in the cities is very bad, and the reproductivity in the cities is considerably low, compared with the average in Japan as a whole. (9) Biologically speaking, Japanese are much healthier than the people of European countries.