Data about standing height mesurements and menarchieal ages examined in 158 healthy pregnant women have been studied. The outstanding findings are as follows: 1. There is a significant positive correlation (+0.13) between reported menarcheal age and standing height in 158 women born in 1924-1940. 2. The correlation between menarcheal age and height of 73 women born in 1933. 1936 was more significantly positive (r=+0.40) 3. The menarcheal age, in the average, annualy tend toward earlier, and the average height tend toward taller.
The writer treated herewith geologic situation of the Afghanistan in relation with hygenic conditions of them. The ground of the prinicpal cities of Afghanistan is covered with a kind of loess-an aeolian soil, silt in grain size and light grey in color. This loess easily changes into mud during rainy season, and is very absorbent in other seasons. Afghan houses in the city have their toilets open to street or lane. Under these conditions, contamination of this soil on the ground is general case in the Afghan cities. In dry season the loess is often blown away into the sky as dust having possibility to ditribute some parasites. Suface water in the cities is generally contaminated. In some parts of the cities, ground water level is so shallow to from swamps, but after hygenic efforts of Afghan Government and WHO, there is very seldom case of malaria to-day in Afghanistan. Ground water in those cities is generally high in its calcium content.
As a result of surveys and investigations of the situation on the tenure of office in laborers engaged, in the period from September 1953 through October 1957, in the dam construction work for the development of the sources of electric power in Oi River (Ikawa-village, Abe-county, Shizuoka Prefecture), following conclusions were obtained. 1) The nuclei of the labor power in the dam construction work for the development of the sources of electric power are floating laborers and yet 70% of them are coolies. 2) Ingress or egress and transference among floating laborers are exceedingly frequent and the average length of their staying there was about 73 days. This period appeared to be extremely short, but this was because that those whose average length of stay was 60 days or less accounted for 42.7% and in particular it was made known that seasonal laborers utilizing the farmer's slack season occupied 22.7% of the whole floating laborers. Moreover, it was found that in such construction work, there was necessity, because of its character, for the exercise of a great deal of labor power and accordingly the number of days for their stay varied with the contents of the work, resulting in the utilization of seasonal laborers so as to make up for a large amount of labor in such a short period. Repetition of coming to this place twice, thrice or repeatedly every year is characteristic of seasonal laborers and their native places tend to be uniform. 3) Fifty four persons showed such a peculiarity that the length of their work was only one day, 21 of whom were occupatinal laborers representing 39.2% and it was conspicuous that 7 of them were in conjunction with oriminal acts. 4) In the population composition by age of floating laborers, the 21-25 age group accounted for the largestr poportion, this being the common phenomenon through all occupations. 5) That female laborers are few is due to the characteristic location of the dam construction in a mountainous remote place as well as to the unfitness of the type of the work for them.
Characteristics of the investigated village should be explained first to study an agricultural village from the medical viewpoint. The author reported the investigated results on fundamental matters of Soehimura, Chiisagatagun, Nagano Prefecture. The village belongs to the high and cold zone, and can be called “a comparatively high and cold zone”. The main agriculture there is rice-crop. Population in 1956 was 4, 631 (908 households). Analysis was done on materials obtained from various viewpoints.
Annual alteration of physical condition (body-weight, height and circumference of the chest) of school children from 1944 to 1956 in Soehimura, Chiisagatagun, Nagano Prefecture, was studied. The result showed elevation of physical standard in comparison with the average values on physical condition of school children throughout Japan in 1927. Influence of the World War II on physical condition of school children was not remarkable in this village. Since 1955, sudden elevation of physical standard of school children has been observed.
The author conducted mass urine examination, blood pressure measurement and sun veys on the morbidity and deaths in Soehi village of Nagano Prefecture which is a semi-cold weather farm village and undertook analysis as to the health hazard problem among the groups of advanced age. 1. Judging from the population composition in this village, it became clear that females outlived males. 2. According to the analysis of death statistics, deaths from cerebral apoplexy were numerous, especially in men this trend was observed in their younger days as well. 3. In the morbidity survey, phenomenon that particular causes of death are characteristic of the persons of advanced age was not noted. 4. As a result of the mass urine examination, 7.1% of the subjects showed album inuria and the positivity in the groups of advanced age was more in women. In spite of their being hypertensive, the persons with albuminuria who are receiving medical care with the diagnosis of hypertension were exceedingly few in number. On examination for hyperglycosuria and hyperglycemia 12 cases (0.6%) of diabetus mellitus could be detected. 5. The results of the mass blood pressure measurement through the analysis of the average systolic blood pressure by ages were that the presence of hypertension in men was earlier in women. This was evidently endorsed also in association with the ages of death from cerebral apoplexy. By means of the above-mentioned analysis on this farm village, a result that irrespective of the presence of latent chronic diseases to a considerable degree in the persons of advanced age there were quite few who were continuing to receive medical consultation and treatment was obtained. For this reason, necessity for attempting a variety of mass examinations was recognized in the management of the health of the advancedge groups.
School boys and girls of fifth grade totaling 3568 were subjected to the present survey. They were from 40 schools in various parts of Japan: Tohoku, Shikoku, and Chugoku. Mountainous-rural, urban, and coastal distrcits were equally represented. Items examined included the extroversion-introversion test, likes and dislikes of food. as referred to material, ways of cookery, as well as frequency of ingestion; together with the socio-economic status and occupation of the parent and family structure. Result: 1. When pupils with extrovert tendency, as represented by deviation indices above 55, . were compared with those with introvert tendency, i. e. deviation indices below 44, the former group accept most food freely, in contrast with the latter group, although preference is given to meats and potato against carrot. Extrovert pupils have no discrimination in ways of cookery. Urban children consume meat more frequently. The same difference was also confirmed in extrovert children with deviation indices above 72 vis-a-vis introvert pupils with indices below 27. 2. Extrovert children take food more freely with less discrimination, without regard to the parent's occupation, whether white-collared or blue collared. The same freedom is observed in extrovert children from greater-sized families. Similar trend of free food acceptance exists in eldest or intermediate children as contrasted to youngest or only children with equally extrovert tendency. 3. Sociometric tests revealed that children of unpopular type with free food acceptance, from families of physical labourers, belong mostly to the group of extrovert tendency. Types of family structure characteristic to such children are: (i) single parent, (ii) presence of one or both grand-parents in the household, (iii) only son in the otherwise female sibship, or (iv) the eldest son in cases of mixed sibship. Consideration: 1. As regards to a common saying: the extrovert are meat-eaters and the introvert are vegetable-eaters, the authoress established that the extrovert have a general tendency of free acceptance of food, while no data supporting the popular theory that the introvert are vegetable-eaters were obtained from variously tried computations. Influence on the personality of the child may come from the complex of socio-economic conditions and mental milieu factors such as living standards, cultural pattern of the community or the household, job-nature and job-status of the family supporting member (s), composition of the family and the family-size. 2. As to the terminology, imbalance in the routinely taken food composition is expressed by the term, “unbalanced food habit” among nutritionists and dietitians. The authoress study, however, concerns the behavioral deviation in food discrimination.
In Shirakawa Agricultural area in Fukushima Prefecture, 1763 premature babies (babies with a birth weight of 2, 500 gm, and less) were born during the period 1948 to 1956. The occurrence rate of Premature births was 6.2 percent (male 5.5, Femal 6.9) of the total numbers of a live births. The death rate of premature infants was 221.2, which was five times higher than the death rate of mature infants. The frequency of premature was the highest in the first born but the mortality was the lowest in the first-born. The neonatal death rate of premature infants was ten times higher than that of mature infants. The risk of death during infancy is strongly determinated by birth weight
The contamination by Coli-form group or stool is tremendous in the Japanese way of life at present, as seen in the reports of the studies on drinking water. But, actually the real state is not known yet, though there are not a few researchers who take up the subject about the inconvenience between a toilet and a kitchen in a Japanese-style house. In this connection, the author made an observation at a village in Tohoku district on the contamination by stool at farmers' houses where both a well and a toilet ware provided. The result was, in short, that the contamination at kitchens in rural districts was terrible. It was, however, the accumulated state of contamination during a long time, and it was found that contamination came not only from a toilet but also from some where else. That is, there seem to be many cases in which it comes through one or two other contaminations not directly from a toilet. To prevent the contamination by a toilet, disinfectant was given to employ, instead of water, for hand-washing, but the trial was unsuccessful in a complete prevention, perhaps because they were not accustomed to use it.
An examination of the mass extermination of helminths was conducted with the children of a primary school at Shizuoka City. The result of the experiment on using Macsanto, a helminthic, was as follows. 1. This experiment on the mass extermination of helminths was very useful not only for the helminth prevention of the school children but also for hygienic guidance and education of their families at homes over the district. The cooperation of the families did much toward the success of this experiment. 2. Macsanto, the mixture of Macnin and Santonin, used in this experiment was so effective as to decrease the positive reaction rate to a eighth with the first dosage, and no ill effect was produced with every dosage. 3. The cost of the medicine was inexpensive to use it frequently. 4. It was convinced through my experiences in the past and the results of the experiment that mass extermination can be achieved for the most part by giving them a reasonable quantity of the said mixture continuously for two days. Accordingly, I am going to recommend this medicine as a harmless helminthic to all of the primary and the middle schools at Shizuoka City.
Investigation has been made on logging work and so called Donaggio's fatigue caused by the work in Naguri-mura, Iruma-gun, Saitama Prefecture from 1957, and following conclusions were obtained. 1. This village is noted for forestry, particularly for logging cedars and cypresses as its main products, and villagers concerned in this industry are found to occupy 70 of the population. 2. According to annual investigation made on two workers in the forestry, they labour from 310 to 320 days in the course of one year (1957), take 2.5-3.3 days off per month on the average, and thus are estimated to work in the forestry from 23.7 to 21.3 days a month on the average. This generally indicates a little more number of working days than that of farming in the rural community. 3. Examination on substance of logging operation demonstrates that workers make a great difference among substance of operation and number of work days. The annual investigation made on two workers shows the same results in their transport of lumbers. However, it is reported that the one requires more days for mowing grasses, while the other requires more days for felling trees. As to operation of seven workers in July, most of days are spent in mowing grasses, and then in transport of lumbers. The requirement of much days for mowing grasses suggests the peculiarity of forestry in this village. 4. Working time generally covers from 8 to 10 hours, but differs according to the month, resulting in a great number of hours between June and September. Moreover, 10-12 hours are needed for the working time including one required to commute to workshops. So far as working time is concerned with, this kind of operation means heavy labor. 5. The result from Donaggio's reaction on the fatigue generally shows low titer before the operation. As to monthly variations. Donaggio's reaction indicates high titer in summer. Especially, as workers make it a rule to get up before five o'clock a. m. in this season, D.R. shows high titer, and this means the remaining fatigue of the former day. D.R. before and after the operation indicates greatly high titer in summer. So far as Donaggio's reaction goes, the logging work is said to produce fairly high degree of fatigue
Report II contains the results of the research concerning the changes in girl body types in the growing process, and concerning the differences between physically accelerated and retarded girls. The subjects were 370 girls. The results are as follows: (1) Applying Coerper-Hagen's Method to the girls in the 4 to 17 age-group, we came to the following results : i. There are 13 types of body forms in girls physical growth. ii. The girls in age-groups 6, 7, 10; 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 tend to belong to Type C. iii. The girls in the 4, 9 and 16 year age-groups tend to belong to Type A. iv. The 8 and 17 year age-groups show no significant diflerences but are widely distributed into 13 types. v. The 5 year-olds tend to belong to Type H. (2) In order to examine the changes of body type in each girl's growing process, we selected the three age-stages of 7, 12 and compared each stage with each body type. Ten per cent of the girls thus selected showed the same body type in each of the three stages. About 20 per cent of this 10 per cent tended to belong either to Type D, J or K. (3) Many writeres say that the maximum growth in bodily height comes at 12 to 13 years of chronological age. Our research showed, however, that some have their maximum growth in bodily height at 5 to 6 years of chronological age.
With regard to Japanese girls in Tokyo, we have surveyed menarche age and its correlations with their height, weight, circumference of the chest, width of shoulders (Breite zwischen den Akromien), pelvic width (Distantia Cristarum), and environmental elements annually for the period of three years. This time we report a notable tendency of accelerated menarche; girls who have shown accelerated menarches are found much in C body type which, compared with the average of their year, their height are extreme and their weight are considerable, and delayed menarche are found much in K type which, compared with the average of their year, their height are low and their weight are small. The correlation between the cube of pelvic width and days after menarche is high. But there is still room for investigation. The environmental factors stimulating the beginning of menarche are not found, nor can we gain any information to predict of menarche.