Hamlet Oda located in Bandai highland of Tohoku district consists of 118 dwellings and 750 population. In this community, an epidemic of typhoid and another of dysentery broke out in 1945 and 1949 respectively. Up to that time, most of the inhabitants used to drink the water of a rivulet. Thereafter most of the villagers came to use well water for drinking, although 22% of them still continued to drink the river water. The authors attempted a sanitary survey of this hamlet, especially directed to the relation between the water quality and the past epidemics. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. In the wells examined, the water was drinkable except only two cases. 2. The river water, collected from several locations, was invariably unfit for drinking. In every sample, coli-groups were found. 3. Two epidemics in the past, of typhoid (1945) and of dysentery (1949) were presumed to be water-borne for the following reasons. a. Both epidemics were explosive. b. Most of the patients had used the river water for drinking. c. Morbidity rate was distinctly higher in female than in male. d. Fatality rate was 0 in the dysentery epidemic.
Researches on the taste-blindness tRo P. T. C. were first taken up by A. L. Fox in 1931, and since then many valuable reports have been published. The author has the pleasure to add here his study. Healthy Japanese of both sexes, 2281 in number, aged from eleven to eighty years, were examined with three test substances-henyl-tho-carbamide, lactose and aspirin. The results obtained are as follows. 1, The percentage frequency of taste-blind persons, including so-called weak-tasters who are supposed to be almost near to taste-blindness, to P. T. C. was 11.09%, lactose 4.82%, and to aspirin 18.8%. 2. In the percentages of tasters to each of these three substances, the sexual difference is statistically not significant 3. No relation between taste-blindness and unbalanced feeding habit has been found.
(1) On the carbohydrate metabolism of the inhabitant in Sado-island who are accustomed to take much rice for their every meal (400.900 g), no significant abnormalities of blood sugar, measured by Hagedorn-Jensen's method, are noticed, compared with the normal Japanese standard, which is tested on those persons taking about 270 g. of rice as one meal. Before breakfast, the average amount of blood sugar of these persons is 80 mg %. An hour later after their usual meal, blood sugar increases up to 120 mg %, the maximum, and then it decreases down to 80 mg % in two to three hours. (2) Blood sugar of the persons during muscular work continued for four hours after a usual meal is elevated, but, as generally accepted, to a less extent, compared with the case when no work is performed after the meal. Occurrence of the sensalon of hunger or fatigue during work is observed not to be closely related to the blood sugar. (3) Blood sugar of the persons, during four hours' work performed after taking half as much vs the usual meal, is elevated, but to a less extent, compared with the usual case. In the former case, some abnormalities of the blood sugar are observed in seven persons, who are suffering from liver enlarkement or hyperchromic anemia, but no hypoglycemia is observed in the other three healthy persons. Moreover, in the former case, the circulatory adjustment in these three healthy persons is more precisely performed during work, while in the latter some abnormalities in the blood pressure are noticeable. (4) In this district, it is rather COM: 110D that people take breakfast after having finished three or four hours of muscular work ; in those persons the blood sugar level is founl abnormal. The blood sugar after the meal reaches its muximum more rapidly and conspicuously ; and this amount of sugar remains longer than in other cases.
(1) It is observed that six females, 4 % of 150 pe: sons examined in a district, where liver-diseases (cholangitis, liver tumor, hepatic cirrhosis) occur very frequently in the island, were suffering from hyperchromic anemia with the hemoglobin content under Sahli 60 %. Liver enlargement and clinical signs of the lack of vitamin B2 complex are noticed in these six persons. After three months' muscular work from April to June, the number of persons, suffering from the above-mentioned hyperchromic anemia increased. (2) On the cardiovascular system, persons corresponding to 6 % of the examined cases are suffering from hypertension. It is to be noticed that after three months' labor from April to June, the number of persons, whose diastolic pressure is under 60 mm Hg, increased by 30%, as compared with that before the labor. The author concludes that these circulatory disturbances, implied in the diastolic pressure, are not to be ascrbied to mere seasonal variations, but to such a endogenous change as the lack of vitamin B2 complex or the dysfunctioning of the liver
Incidence of whooping cough in 3, 874 school-children was investigated by questionnaire at Kawagoe city and its adjoining district situated in the northern suburbs of Tokyo. The authors have concluded as follows : (1) Of them 93.7 percent answered the questionnaire, and that 47.1 percent answered perfectly. The rate of answering from the urban district was higher than that from the rural area. The necessity of health education on whooping cough was recognized. (2) The children of commercial and industrial people showed higher incidence, and the Nukada's law for whooping cough epidemics was found applicable to the cases. (3) The higher susceptibility to whooping cough of the pupils who weighed heavier at birth occurred by the time of three years of age, and these children suffered longer period than normally or prematurely born individuals. (4) On the point of infantile nutrition, the susceptibility to whooping cough in pupils who had been fed on mother's milk or cow's milk was lower than that of those brought up on cow's milk combined with other ways of artificial feeding. These differences of susceptibility due to different infantile nutrition were not regarded specific to the whooping cough.
Considering present state of the anti-cancer combat, especially the absence of effective preventive measures, although much progress has beeen made toward early detection of the neoplasm, it is at present most important to grasp a real figure of cancer incidence. So far the cancer statistics of this country have been derived from mortality data. It is, however, desirable to supplement such statistics with morbidity data. The author, thus motivated, made two kinds of survey on cancer morbidity : (1) Every practitioner in the district of Kawagoe Health Centre was visited by the author, and all cancer patients under the medical care were recorded. (2) Family survey was carried out by way of school children of elementary schools of Kawagoe City, Saitama Prefecture and Toyohashi City, Aichi Prefecture. The first procedure has its merit in supplying an accurate number of incidenre, while it does not reveal the distribution pattern of cancer cases. The investigation via school children is quite simple as against other methods, and fairly reliable as to the data of prevalence, allowing also factor analysis. Also some data may be obtained concerning therapeutic efficacy of certain kinds of treatment. Further more, distribution of the questionnaire and explanation how to fill the form to the children and the parents contribute to dissemination of the knowledge on cancer, an acknowledged social measure against cancer.