The practise of the birthcontrol is annually increasing but the other side, according the numbers of registration, it the fact that a great many people still carry out the interruption of pregnancy. The present paper deals with the outlines of patients who visited the out-patient-department of the obstetrics and gynecologics in Toritsu Sumida Hospital during the periods of six months from March to August in thirty-first of Showa and wanted the interruption of pregnancy ; The authors asked them as full as possible by interview whether they had carried out the birthcontrol and if not, the reason why they did not and if they did, the cause which they had failed through. The total of patients who visited the hospital and wanted to interrupt the pregnancy artificially comes to 908 and those who did not carry out the birthcontrol formed 341 (37.56%) but one who inspite of birthcontrol became pregnancy formed 567 (62.44%). In this 567 failures of birthcontrol, the cases which used only the Ogino's method account for 87 and further the other cases which used the Ogino's method with the utensils and the medicines together accounted for 324. That is, the failures of birthcontrol who used the Ogino's method lead th about 60%. We became clear that in the methods of birthcontrol which were used in our country (Japan) the Ogino's method occupied a high percentage and its successes depended, to a great extent, upon the comprehension and proper practise of the Ogino's method. In view of the facts that are mentioned above, we become clear that the problem which we must tink is that we must more concentrate our minds to assume leadership of the Ogine's method.
Data about menarcheal ages and measurements of height and sitting-height for the last 3 years of 22, 448 girls from 11 to 16 years old wer investigated from the standpoint that the percentage of maturated girls would variate by chronological age and by growth of height or sitting-height. The main findings are as follows: 1. Regional difference in menarcheal age was found to originate in the state of constitutional growth. 2. No significant difference in coefficient of variation was observed between height and sitting-height at menarcheal period. 3. A short terminative maturation of about 1.4 years or more was observed in extremely tall girls at the earlier period and in extremely short girls at the later period, while it took 4 years or more for the girls of average height or sitting-height to complete maturation. 4. The state of maturity for, all adolescent girls and also the menarcheal age for premenarcheal girls may be presumed by means of the curves, which represent the percentages of postmenarcheal girls by chronological age and by height (or sittingheight).
Employing 662 histories of death and 7, 997 histories on measles of students of junior and senior high schools in Bandai highland, including their brothers and sisters, the age incidence of the disease was studied and the following results were obtained. 1) The mortality from measles made 7.55% of dead who had been registered to the survey. The maximum mortality rate from the disease was observed at 2 years of their ages. 2) The percentages of contractions from the disease were 92.69% in flat area, 91.69% in mountainous area and 92.71% in whole area respectively. Regional differences were not observed. 3) The disease reached its maximum at 2 years of age and the contraction rate at that age was 17.97%. Thereafter, the rate declined gradually till 6 years and then it decreased warkedly with ages. No regional differences were seen. 4) No sexual differences were observed. 5) The cumulative rate of affection from the disease showed that 52.99% and 86.89% out of them were attacked till 3 and 7 years of their ages. 6) Among the children under 1 year of age, there was smaller incidence in the prior half of the age than in the later half of it. 7) No differences were seen by observation regarding to the order of their, birth. 8) At the age. distribution among children who had not beeh attacked previously, the maximum incidence of the disease comes at 6 years of age. 9) According to the fiscal contraction rate among persons who have not been affected previously, most of them were done at 6 to 10 years of their ages.
In literature of physical development has not been clearly determined, whether the aspect of individual physical growth in the first grade of the elementary school will undergo any changes in its process in the following years, or will maintain the same or similar condition. The present study trys to solve these problems. The data were attained from 370 representative samples of urban girls who were measured at stature, weight, and chest girth anually from the 7 th to 17 th year of their life. The summary is as following. I) Patterning The curve lines of the individual growth were classified, for convenience, into 12 patterns in stature and 16 patterns in weight. It appeared, that a few cases both in stature and weight showed the same pattern as the standard curve line. Amoung 12 patterns in stature and 16 patterns in weight, those which run in parallel with the standard curve line are fewer than those which do not. As regards the latter patterns, the following facts were found by applying the patterns to the four kinds of tendecies of increase and decrease term in physical growth process. As for stature, there were many cases in which the increment was shown since post child period and few cases in which the decrement was shown since pre-adolesence. As for weight, there was not found any significant tendencies. II) Prediction In stature, the correlation coefficent between 7 and 17 years is. 61, and between 12 and 17 years is. 63. In weight the correlation coefficent between 7 and 17 years is. 46, and between 12 and 17years is. 55. In chest girth, the correlation coefficent between 7 and 17 years is. 22, and between 12 and 17 years. 47.
In order to investigate the actual state of cancer within the jurisdiction of the Kawagoe Helth Centre of the Saitama Prefecture, we have visited all the 110 hospitals and clinics within the jurisdiction, under the cooperation of the Doctors' Ass'n., and the Health Centre. We have not only inquired of the doctors, but have also gone through the protocols of the patients who have come during the investigation period, and we have chosen those who were diagnosed as cancer or malignant ulcer, making our observations according to sex, age, and disease types. We have calculated the death rate by comparing the contraction percentage of cancer, the prevalence rate, and the death certificate ; and have compared it with the figures of various parts of the U.S.A., and the Miyagi, Okayama, and Saitama Prefectures. Furthermore, the monthly survival rate was obtained, and the drawing up of basic data was attempted in order to devise measures of the prevention of cancer.
Shimoheii district, located in northern part of Japan, isolated from civilization by the high mountains and left in poverty, is known as “a Tibet of Japan”. The inhabitants in these area appear in the Japanese history as barbarians called “the Ezo” and some say that the district is one of the dwelling places of “Ainos” (the natives in northern part of Japan). The relation between the two is still the inconclusive subject. The present report is based on the biometric survey, conducted at Shimoheii district, in August, 1958, for 510 healthy male adults, from 20-50 years of age, of the families residing for more than three generations there. The synthetical comparison through the biometric records with people in other districts revealed that the inhabitants in this district have the close affinity to people in Bichu, Northern Shinshu and Kai districts and slight one to those in Echu district, North Korea and Ainos in Hokkaido. It is considered that the “Ezo” is not the name for the different race but the uncivilized tribe, and it has little relation with Ainos.
During six months from December 1958 to June 1959, the writer was given with the chance to stay in Afghanistan to study medical conditions in that country. Afghanistan is situated in northwest of Pakistan, ranging in its latitude from 29N to 39N and in longitude 60E-75E. It is an entirely inland country covering area of ca. 650, 000 km2 with estimated population ranging from 8 to 12 millions. The topography of Afghanistan resembles a hand extended from northeast to southwest with its back upward. Highest peak is around 7, 000 m in height. Rivers except the Kabul River are all inland. Climate is of arid zone, showing annual precipitation of 317 mm at Kabul. Large precipitation is in 'winter and small in summer. Relative humidity is in summer low and high in winter. Kabul has five months in summer very comfortable for Japanese, being considered as one of the most healthy capitals in the world. Afghanistan has a composite race structures, having many different races as Afghans, Tajiks, Uzbeks, Turkmens, Hazaras, Nuristanis and others. Greater part of these races is Moslem. Afghans are of Turk-Iranian type, Tajiks of Persian origin, Uzbeks and Turkmens of Turkish type, Hazaras of Mongolian origin, and Nuristanis are of Indo-Aryan origin. Afghans are settled and nomadic, other races being mostly settled. Greater part of Afghan people is farmer. They are living pre-modern lives. The houses in Afghanistan are built of mud bricks mainly. Thick wall of mud can. prevent well heat and coldness in dry climate of this country. The accommodation of the. houses is not so suitable for health, but owing its healthy climate, epidemic occurs rarely.
The author maae an investigation on birth control among the teachers of primary and middle schools in Nagano Prefecture as of January, 1958. The investigation was made from various points on 4648 men who married for the first time and whose wives. were not teachers. The results were summarized as follows. 1. Marriage: The averge age at the marriage was 27.5 in husbands and 23.8 in wives. As for the age difference between husbands ane wives, both were at the same age in 6.2%, husbands were older in 87.3%, and wives were older in 6.5%. 2. Childbirth: The number of children was 0 in 10.9%, 1 in 20.8%, 2 in 28.5%, . 3 in 21.3% and 4 in 11.0%. The average number was 2.2, and that in those who had passed more than 20 years after the marriage was 3.7. The average was 2.5 in those who had experienced artificial termination of pregnancy and 2.1 in those who had not. experienced it, and thus the number of children was more in the former. 3. Opinions on the population problem in this country : Those who thought that this country was overpopulated were 95%, and those who thought underpopulated were 3.4%. As the measures to counter overpopulation, 71.2% recommended birth control, 50.2% immigration, and 43.0% industrial reconstruction. It seemed characteristic of the intellectual class that the opinion for industrial reconstruction was strong. The desired number of children was three in 58.2%, which was the highest percentage. 4. Education for children: The desired education for children was university education in 99%. 5. Opinions on birth control: Those who were for birth control were 93.7%, and those against it were 4.3%. The reasons of the affirmative side were in the following order: overpopulation, better living, protection of mothers, hard living, and birth plan, and the reasons of the opponents were unnaturiness and underpopulation. As for the methods ofbirth control, those who knew them were 90.9%. Most of them learne them by mass communication, and only 12.5% learned them at health centers. 6. Practice of birth control: Those who had practiced birth control were 57.1%, and the dominant reason for the practice was the protection of mothers. The rate of failure in birth control was 43.7% and was unexpectedly high. The dominant method in failure was the use of condoms, and the reason of failure seemed the incomplete use. The most favored method of brith control was the use of condoms, Ogino's method the second, and the measurement of body basal temperature the next. It wrs noteworthy that the measurement of body basal temperature was practiced in 17.2%. 7. Artificial termination of pregnancy : Those who had experienced artificial termination of pregnancy was 25.8%, and the average number of the termination was 1.5. The reason of the termination was mothers' heal 'h in 71.7%, which was he highest percentage. The influences of the termination were observed in 51.5%. 8. Contraceptive operation : Among those who were above the age of 30, 120 had contraceptive operations, and they were 5.2% of this age group. The bad influences of the operation were observed in 10.8%. These results revealed that the teachers were well aware of family plan, and many of them were practicing birth con. rol. However, the facts that there were many who had experienced artifical termination of pregnancy or failed in birth control because of the incomplete practice suggested that although there was hardly any necessity of popularizing family plan to these teachers, sufficient and concrete guidance for the practice of the methods was necessary. The author believed that this study made the opinions and actual conditions of family plan of a teachers' group fairly clear.