The menopause has significant implications in women's life from several aspects. In order to give some suggestion to women's way of life, we studied history obtaining from the records at cancer examination in two institutions, and investigated about the factors influencing natural menopausal age. The results were as follows: 1) The age distribution of menopause was from about 30 to 59, with mean value of 50.0±3.5 (SD). 2) In 1906 to 1932 of birthyears, when the number of pregnancy and delivery decreased gradually, menopausal age unchanged. 3) In 5 geographic areas, where significant differences were found in menarcheal age, marital age, numbers of pregnancy and delivery, menopausal age showed contant value. 4) There exists no significant relationship between menarcheal age and menopausal age. 5) In the group of early marriage before 22 yr old, significant positive correlation was noted between marital age and menopausal age. 6) From the viewpoint of physique, significant positive correlation was found between BMI (adiposity) and menopausal age, excluding women with BMI beyond 25 (upper limit of normal range). 7) Menopausal age tended to show lower in never-pregnant or never-delivered group in physicalworker, in smoker, in non-favorite group of meat, beans and sweets, in favorite group of salt taste, and in gorup used artificial milk for infant rearing, than the opposite group, respectively. As above, menopausal age proved to relate closely to more individual factors rather than social or environmental factors.
There are various regional elements which relate to the health condition of inhabitants. The purpose of the study is to show the military conscription data for the systematic elucidation of such relationships. The records of the physical examination taken in 1910 for the conscription of twenty-year-old male in the Austrian monarchy have been used. For each examinee, besides a success or failure of the conscription, names of diseases as reason for failure, occupation, stature and mother tongue (German or Italian) are recorded. A total of 4, 790 persons, 1, 661 persons in the South Tyrol and 3, 129 in Trentino in the Northern Italy has been analyzed for comparison of the health condition between these two regions which have the distinct regional characters. As a result of the analysis, it was clarified that the percentage of failures in Trentino was much more than that in the South Tyrol . In regard to the regional variation of diseases, skin diseases and diseases of thyroid gland are relatively dominant in rural and mountainous regions in Trentino, which can mean endemic pellagra and goiter prevalent in the region in the early 20th century. Furthermore, using the military conscription data the complicate relationships between disease and regional elements, i.e. physical and socio-economic elements, in Trentino could be described qualitatively .
Prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon, numbness and pain in the hands were surveyed in 496 inhabitants over 20 years of age who had taken a health examination held in a mountain village in Hokuriku district. The results obtained by this survey were as follows. 1. Prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon, numbness and pain in the hands in males without experience of usage of vibrating tools were 1.3%, 7.4% and 0.0%, respectively, which are not significantly different from those in females. 2. Prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon, mumbness and pain in the hands in males with experience of usage of vibrating tools were 6.3%, 8.8% and 2.5%, respectively.
Numerous studies and reports have investigated an important role of lipid in the erythrocyte membrane. About 50% of the lipid composition of erythrocyte membrane consists of phospholipid, 40% is unesterified cholesterol, and 10% is glycolipid. The modified lipid composition of erythrocyte membrane influences the activity of membranebound enzyme like Na-K ATPase (Anner, 1985; Cooper et al., 1983; Incerpi et al., 1983; Marcus et al., 1986; Yeagle, 1983). The relationship between Na-K ATPase activity and hypertension has been investigated (Swarts et al., 1981; Walter, 1982; Wambach et al., 1982; Wocial et al., 1984), since Garay and Meyer (1979) published their observations and estimated the positive association between sodium-potassium cotransport and hypertension. Recently an inhibitor of Na-K ATPase was found in hypertensives, and low activity of Na-K ATPase points to a possible association with essential hypertension (Hamlyn et al., 1982; Hugues et al., 1984; MacGreygor et al., 1980). We have, therefore, investigated the relationship between membrane lipids and Na-K ATPase activity using erythrocyte membranes from normotensive adolescents grouped according to a family history of hypertension.
This paper investigates the relationship between mortality from cerebrovascular disease (hereafter called stroke) and the indoor thermal environment in two selected towns with different socioeconomic compositions: Shiwahime, an agricultural town with relatively high stroke mortality, and Karakuwa, a fishing town with relatively low stroke mortality, using a case-control research design. The survey of the indoor thermal environment was conducted from November 29 to December 5, 1986 in Shiwahime and from December 9 to December 15, 1986 in Karakuwa in the households of cases and controls. One member of each case and control household was asked to complete a questionnaire on the indoor thermal environment on any one day during the survey period. He was also asked to record the temperature of the living room, the bedroom of the oldest member, and the toilet three times a day (morning, afternoon and evening) during the survey period. In order to examine the indoor temperature more closely, eight households in each study town were selected from the case and control households. Temperatures were recorded continuously indoors and outdoors for a week using self-recording thermometers . The findings are summarized as follows: 1) Room temperatures in the control households were generally higher than those in the case households by up to 1.3°C. 2) The thermal conditions of the housing in the case households were a little inferior to those in the control households.