Risk factors of death were assessed from the personal data of the dead and the survivors, total 2, 934 subjects, who had undergone a public mass adult health examination ten years ago in the three villages in Kanto area in Japan. Age of the subjects at the time of the health examination was 40 years or more and averaged early fifties. Number of cases observed are 1, 299 males and 1, 705 females. One hundred and seven males (8.7%) and 73 females (4.3%) died during the ten years of observation period. Cox's proportional hazard model was applied to the data, which revealed the three factors: age at the health examination, systolic blood pressure, and smoking habit, were significantly related to the mortality risk of males. The hazard ratio increased to 1.7 at 110 mmHg of systolic blood pressure or more against 1 .0 at average blood pressure level. The BMI showed no significant relation to the mortality risk, though the lower BMI showed rather the higher mortality risk. When the cancer death in male was picked up, the hazard ratio was related significantly to the age at the health examination, drinking, and smoking habits. Hazard ratio of the smoker was 11.3 or over compared to the non-smoker, whereas that of the drinker was 3.3 or over compared to the non-drinker. The mortality risk of all causes of death in females was significantly related to the age at health examination, diastolic blood pressure and the BMI. The hazard ratio increased to 2.4 or more at 110 mmHg of systolic blood pressure or more against 1.0 at average blood pressure level. The lower the BMI, the higher was the mortality risk of females. The highest risk factor was the age at the health examination, in the three analysis: total cause of deaths in male and female, cancer deaths in male. Estimation of the death probability for the 10 years from the same data using multiple logistic model revealed similar results to those by Cox's proportional hazard model. The range of the estimated risk of death of the three death groups was classified into ten classes and calculated the number of the expected deaths, which were closely related to the observed number of deaths. The highest risk class of all causes of death in male produced 24% of death rate, and that of male cancer deaths and female all causes of death produced both 13% of death rate.
Jakarta, the capital of the Republic of Indonesia, is inhabited by 8.25 million people according to its 1990 census. In an area of 661 km2, this results in a population density of 10, 750 per km2. The annual population growth rate of Jakarta during the early 1980s was 2.41%, though a the total population growth rate of Indonesia was 1.97%. The annual growth rate of Jakarta accelerated to between 2.8-2.9% during the 1985 to 1990 period. Urban development has been expanding rapidly from Jakarta into the surrounding areas of Bekasi, Bogor and Tangerang. Rapid urbanization and motorization have progressed in the past 15 years in Jakarta. Construction activities in the areas of high-rise buildings for housing and business, roadways and rail systems have increased. The total number of motor vehicles registered in Jakarta increased from 1.1 million in 1982 to 1.9 million in 1992 (Jakarta 1993), thus indicating an annual rate of increase of 5.6%. Road length grew at 4% annually. The high total suspended particulates (TSP) in Jakarta results from the burning of solid wastes in homes and industry, exhaust from automobiles, buses, tricycles and from construction activities. Emissioninspection programs for commercial automobiles and buses were instituted by the government in 1990. Lead pollution by automobiles has been heavy because the gasoline available in Indonesia includes tetraethyl-lead (TEL) as an additive. Significant biochemical levels of lead have been found in tricycle taxi drivers by some of the authors (Tri-Tugaswati A et al., 1987) . The Government of Indonesia ordered a decrease in the addition of TEL by 40-50% in 1990. The actual effectiveness of this reduction is not yet known. The State Minister of Population and Environment gave directives to the regional authorities specifying the level of pollutants in the air, ground water and sea water. The decree from governor of DKI Jakarta (Decree Number 1222/1990) specifies two levels for the dominant pollutants emitted by motor vehicles in DKI Jakarta, i.e. the target level and permitted level. The major pollutants addressed in this decree are CO, 03, N0, HC and the emissions from diesel engines and two stroke engines. The decree stated that all types of motor vehicles operated in Jakarta, including private passenger cars, motorcycles and commercial trucks, are subject to emission inspections which are to be conducted under the supervison ofDLLAJR DKI Jakarta. Motor vehicles passing the inspection receive a certificate valid for six months. One year is the transition period. The governor decree is applicable only for the vehicles which are subject to safety test only. After this first three year period, all motor vehicles in Jakarta are required to have emission inspections. The objective of this research concerning Jakarta is to show: (1) the present status and characteristics of automotive air pollution in Jakarta, with special emphasis on particulate, lead, and nitrogen dioxide; (2) the metallic content in TSP in Jakarta compared to that of other cities and the effect of lead reduction program; (3) differences of areal and daily change of NO2 in Jakarta, particularly the decrease on Sunday and the Idul Fitri day; and (4) the relationship between pollution and traffic volume in 1985 and 1992/93. Finally we will make some recommendations to improve air quality.
Eating Style of 166 healthy male volunteers (42.7±9.3 yers old) was observed indirectly by Video tape recording (VTR observation) in the search for the characteristic Japanese eating style "HAYAGUI" (eating more rapidly). The meal with same content (757 kcal, 580 g in weight) has taken unrestrainedly in all subjects without changing eating place. Subjects characteristics, meal duration, amount of food, mouthfuls, chews, pause duration, and rates of food consumption per 30 seconds were observed by played back tapes. Six types were classfied in changes in the rate of food consumption, and the six types combined into three eating styles, regardless of similar meal duration. The analysis of variance for hunger, thirst, fullness and other subjective factors rating immediately before and after the meal have shown no signif icances among 3 styles. The most impressive eating style was "Zenhan-type" (25.9% of all subjects), which was characterized by higher rate of food consumption (above 10% of which food per 30 seconds) during the first half and more chewing than other types.
In August, 1988, 13 healthy old women of the average age of 84.3 ± 2.2 in a welfare home for the aged, who could manage their own daily lives, were surveyed for their nutrient intake. The home is a inexpensive private one, located in Icity of the southern area of Okinawa main island. 1. The body composition of the subjects was 141.2 ± 7.4 cm for height, 48.6 ± 7.8 kg for weight and 24.4 ± 3.1 for the body mass index (BMI). Compared to the national average values, the height and weight were not significantly different, but BMI was higher, with 4 persons considered at risk of obesity. 2. The nutrient intake was 30.1 ± 4.8 kcal/kg for energy, 1.2 ± 0.2 g/kg for protein, 6.9 ± 1.2 g for the NaCI equivalent amount, 28.4 ± 5.6 g for animal-total protein ratio, 15.6 ± 1.3% for the protein-energy ratio, and 26.7 ± 2.6% for the lipid-energy ratio. 3. Comparing the amounts taken from the food groups to those of the Kagawa's proposition, those of the pulse and the meat of animal, poultry and fish were not significantly different but those of the cereals, oil and lipid were higher, and those of the eggs, milk and milk products were lower. 4. Among the amounts of nutrients taken, the amounts of food groups consumed, and the blood pressures, there were found significant correlation coefficients in some combinations.
Using 6 skinf old thicknesses (triceps, subscapular, abdomen, suprailiac, anterior thigh, posterior calf) measured by B-mode ultrasound technique, subcutaneous fat distribution was assessed and percentage of body fat was measured by near infrare spectroscopy in 55 Chinese adult males in Fuzhou aged from 20 to 40 years. The results are as follows: 1. Subcutaneous fat distribution pattern is the same as the reports that subcutaneous fat is the thickest in abdomen and the thinnest in limbs . Compared with studies of American and Japanese, the subcutaneous fat of Chinese males was thicker in suprailiac and posterior calf, and thinner in subscapular. 2. Percentage of body fat or total body fat was moderately positively correlated with skinfold thickness.