The present paper discusses, from a phenomenological viewpoint. how a movement learner structurizes his own human body, i.e., the body in phenomenological implications through his movement. The points of issue were as follows: 1. What is the structure of the body in the phenomenological context? 2. What does a learner structurize as his own human body? 3. How does a learner structurize it as his own human body? After the discussion, following results were obtained. 1. The human body exists as a function of learner's own body, so that it maintains a specific structure which is distinguished from the mere physical body. 2. A learner maintains bodily space and time according to his own capability of moving. He uses them as a framework of articulating and identifying his own percepts and structurizes these percepts centering on a specific movement. This means structurizing the human body. 3. Movement learning is a process of restructurizing one's own human body that is able to move and moving now, because a movement learner structurizes his movement constantly by revising his percepts that have already been identified. It means that the process of structurizing the human body has certain order. 4. A movement learner should know what he structurizes and how he structurizes his percepts as his own human body. Without knowing these, he can not learn his own human body effectively.
Effects of long-term with high intensity endurance training upon histochemically assessed myofibrillar actomyosin ATPase, myosin composition and creatine kinase content were analyzed in muscles from rats which were trained to run up to 240min/day at 40m/min. Following 16 weeks of the training, in M. soleus, proportions of slow-twitch oxidative (S0) fibers and slow type myosin light chains were increased; no changes in myosin light chain were significantly observed. Furthermore, a decrease in creatine kinase was found in this muscle, indicating that SO fibers might have acquired slower properties. On the other hand, in M. extensor digitorum longus, there was only a transformation between fast-twitch fiber subgroups, with a decrease in LC3f by which fast myosin constructed was characterized by the highest myofibrillar ATPase activities. These data suggest that fiber type transformation may be brought about not only from fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) fibers to fast-twitch oxdative glycolytic (FOG) fibers but also from FOG fibers to SO fibers by long-term with high intensity endurance training.
The process of athlete's ego identity formation as viewed from the mutuality involved in solving a crisis has been discussed in the made by the present investigator and his colleagues previous reports. The present investigation is essentially an attempt to confirm this idea through a psychotherapeutic case. Based on the survey of the theoretical background concerning psychological reasons of crisis mode which contributes to character transformation, this study was conducted from a case study of psychotherapy for a college male student athlete who became apathetic towards his academic studies.The problems of this case in relation with his personality were as follows; sexual identity, lack of positiveness, ego identity formation, and defensive interpersonal relations. Crises occuring in his life history were examined in order to clarify the influence of the mutuality in crisis mode on his character formation. He had experienced some crises in his "relationship with his father", "relationship with his coaches", "determining his course of direction after graduation from junior high and high school", and "his attitude towards academic studies". There were commonly low level of development of mutuality in solving these crises except in the area of his attitude towards academic studies, which is the main reason (crisis) he came for psychotherapy. The lack of mutuality in the crisis mode was thought to be one contributing factor in the formation of the problems in this case with his personality. He actively tried to solve this crisis, which in the enhanced self-examination of himself. Through this process of psychotherapy, he was able to cope with this crisis with the mutuality he had never experienced before. Thus, he gradually began to develop into a normal functioning person. It can possibly be concluded that one reason character change was brought about was the improvement of mutality in the crisis mode.
If a specific judo player has two special techniques at one time, it can be said that these two techniques have something common by some factors. If this relationship can be applied to other players, it is generally considered that a player with one of these two techniques as his specialty has the possibillity of mastering the other technique as his other specialty. From this point of view, the similarity of special techniques was defined, and the statistical structure and classification of throwing techniques of judo, different from the traditional ones were discussed. A questionnares survey was conducted to national team members and the statistical structure of special techniques was abstracted by applying nonmetric multidimensional scaling to the acquired similarity matrix. The following conclusions were obtained: (1) Among techniques studied here, "ouchigari", "ippon-seoinage", and "ostogari" have a genral characteristic, and many players use them as their special techniques. Therefore, these techniques are assumed to be easilly mastered by many players as their special techniques. (2) The following techniques are similar to each other: "osotogari" and "uchimata", "seoinage", "ippon-seoinage" and "taiotoshi" and "ouchigari" and "kouchigari".
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the maintenance of fitness with aging. The subjects were 59 men of 49-55 years of age, who entered to Hokkaido University and once had been examined for their fitness between the years of 1950-1952. They were reexamined to determine the maintenance of fitness with age in 1983. After 31-33 years, declination of the mean values in fitness shows from 50.9 to 42.1cm in vertical jump, from 154 to 143kg in back strength, from 4.35 to 3.73L in vital capacity and from 8.4 to 3.2 times in pull-ups. Grip strength was increased from 44.0 to 47.1kg. The correlation coefficients of the values between the time they were freshmen and the present time, were relatively higher in vertical jump (r=0.61, p<0.01), moderatory higher in back strength (r=0.50, p<0.01), grip strength (r=0.48, p<0.05) and vital capacity (r=0.46, p<0.05), but lower in pull-ups (r = 0.17, not significant). Back strenght and grip strength were maintained better in a group who had been engaged in daily physical activity than those who had been inactive. But the differences in the rate of decline were not significant in vertical jump; pull-ups and vital capacity. It was noticed that 14 (23.7%) of the 59 subjects indicated that walking was felt to be the most effective factor to maintain fitness.