This is the third of a series of researches designed to clarify the mechanism of sport behavior. The purpose of the present research is to elucidate various aspects of conditions which contribute to the choice making behavior to sport events. To attain the purpose, sport events were classified into three categories, i. e., individual events, combative events of man to man type and the events of team sport. Analysis was made by Hayasi's Quantification Scaling (type 2) according to sex and frequency of sport participation regarding each combination of the two of three categories of the events as an external criterion. Such five conditions as Actual Sport Participation, Subjective Aspects, Objective Aspects, Mass Media and Sport Experience which consist of twenty-one variables were employed as explanatory variables. Subjects were 2075 adults of both sexes. Main results may be summarized as follows: 1. Discriminant analysis among the participants in each category of sport events was conducted according to respective combinations by aid of the explanatory variables created in the present research. The result showed that correlation ratios differed with sexes and frequencies of sport participation, that correlation ratios of female participants were higher than those of male participants, and that the correlation ratios of the continuous sport participants (persons who participate in sport once or more a week) tended to be higher than those of non-continuous participants (less than once a week). In other words, females and continuous participants were apt to be affected more strongly, in terms of making choice of sport events, by the conditions adopted in the present research than males and non-continuous participants. 2. In case of males, especially continuous males, the discrimination was not distinctive between combative events and team events, while in case of females, especially non-continuous females, the discrimination between individual events and combative events was not clear enough. The discrimination between combative events and team events was most distinctive in female un-continuous participants in contrast with male participants. 3. The result of the examination in contribution strength of five conditions showed that the condition Actual Sport Participation which consisted of such variables as place, time, fellows and leaders was strongest in all discriminations, and Subjective Condition including such seven variables as view of leisure time, physical skill, preferential attitude toward sport, the need for physical activities, the attitude of utilizing sport activities, confidence in one's own physical fittness, and insufficient feeling for physical activities came next. 4. As for other conditions, Sport Experience (variables are the chance of beginning sport, sport experience at school in school days and sport experience outside school in school days) of continuous males and Objective Conditions (marriage, children, income, living environment and leisure time) of continuous female contributed strongly to the choice making regardless of the difference of the combinations. Non-continuous males showed almost the same tendency as the case of continuous males. As to non-continuous females Objective condition contributed strongly to the choice making in the combination of individual events and combative events, while the condition Sport Experience tended to contribute strongly in the combination of combative events and team events and also in the combination of team events and individual events. 5. The examination in contribution of individual variables was conducted by partial correlation coefficients, and the result showed that the aspects of contribution differed With the combination of sport events, sexes and frequencies of sport participation. Details are shown in Table 4 to 7.
The main purpose of the present paper is to analyze the sex differences of the structure of dance appreciation by factor analytic technique. The factor analysis was applied to the data obtained from a 50×50 between-scale correlation matrix. Findings are as follows; Some sex differences were found in the factor structure of dance appreciation. In case of girls, the structure of dance appreciation was composed of three main factors, namely, Dynamism, Gracefulness, and Uniqueness. As for boys, the structure consisted of such four main factors as Dynamism, Uniqueness, Gracefulness, and Evaluation. The first three factors were common to both boys and girls. It was suggested that the structure of dance appreciation would be constructed on the basis of the factor Dynamism, because this factor accounted for most of the total variances. There were some sex differences in the dance appreciation on DAS (Dance Appreciation Scales composed of 50 polar-paired adjectives created by Kinjo) when the focus was taken on the dimensions of Dynamism and Evaluation which were extracted from factor analysis conducted for the pooled data. Girls tended to attach more importance to Dynamism and Evaluation than boys. Nevertheless, the rank-order-correlation of dance appreciation was significant (rs =.89 on Dynamism and rs =.69 on Evaluation) between boys and girls, i.e., the more the dance was perceived as the dynamic, the higher it was evaluated, and vice versa.
The purpose of this study is to examine the factors of female university students' motivation for sport participation in relation to the period of their athletic group experience. The survey on the sum of 77 items of motivation for sport participation was conducted to 470 female students from two universities. Principal factor solution method with normal varimax rotation was applied to the correlation matrix of all subjects and to those of three groups divided in terms of the period of their athletic group experience. Main findings are summarized as follows: 1. 9 factors common to both athletes and non-athletes are named Activity (which consists of 8 items of motivation such as I like sport, I like moving actively, I feel well after sport and so on), Character Shaping (10 items: I can shape my courage, decision, self-denying spirit etc.), Inducement (7 items: My friends participate, My friends induced me etc.), Friendship (5 items: We can cooperate, We can make good friends etc.), Exploration (4 items: I want to try it, I want to have various experiences etc.), Social Recognition (6 items: I can be proud of it, Others recognize my ability etc.), Sport skill and Motor Ability (5 items: I can correct pose of my body, I can keep myself in shape etc.), and Achievement (5 items: It shapes guts, It fastens my will etc.). 2. 7 factors common among 3 groups (group A: non-experience, group B: 0.1 to 3.9 years' experience, group C: more than 4 years' experience), when the same analysis was applied to them separately, are Character Shaping, Inducement, Activity, Exploration, Social Recognition, Sport Skill and Motor Ability, and Beauty and Health. 3. As the characteristic factors of each group, Catharsis (7 items: I feel ill without doing sport, I can forget my inferiority complex in daily life etc.) from group A, and Recreation (4 items: It is pleasant, It makes daily life pleasant and rich etc.) and Game (5 items: I can shape adventurous mind, I can shape my courage, I like serious feeling in the game etc.) were obtained. 4. The contents of the factor Character Shaping vary from goal achieving character shaping to harmonious character shaping as athletic group experience becomes longer. 5. The factor Inducement is significant for the students of shorter period of athletic group experience. 6. The contents of the factor Activity vary from light activities to hard ones as athletic group experience becomes longer. 7. The students who have longer period of athletic group experience sublimate their competitive mind with sport skill.
In an effort of understanding the relationship between sport and society, especially the function of sport in contemporary society, sport sociologists have tried to develop a number of theoretical orientations. However, most studies are about a specific sport or about a particular group, or on a very microscopic level. This might be caused by the newness of this field of study, or by the lack of an appropriate conceptual scheme. It is beyond dispute that the complete study is impossible for any field, but sport sociologists must begin to make some effort in understanding the significance of sport in complex society. Our contemporary communities in complex society are, fortunately or unfortunately, quickly advancing toward maximized ones by the development of division of labor. In this paper the author tried to elucidate the function of sport on the level of junior high school which acts as an agent for E. Durkheim's central concept collective consciousness, because eliciting collective consciousness is one of the requisite today in the reformation of the community. In this paper the focus of discussion is on elucidating the possible relationship between sport and collective consciousness. Following three hypotheses were set up for empirical investigations: (1) Communities with the lower division of labor would have greater collective consciousness. (2) Communities with higher sport reputation on the level of junior high school would have greater collective consciousness. (3) Communities with better sport record on the level of junior high school would have greater collective consciousness. To verify these hypotheses two kinds of researches were conducted by questionnaire and interview methods in 9 communities differed respectively in the degree of division of labor. One is the research on 871 community residents' collective consciousness and another is on the actual conditions of physical education and snort club activities in 11 junior high schools in the communities. As the result of analyzing the data obtained from these researches, all hypotheses were adopted, viz, the degree of division of labor correlated with the degree of collective consciousness. The result also suggested that sport is one of the social phenomena which functions positively to eliciting and reinforcing collective consciousness in each of the communities various in the degree of division of labor. However, the result depends on the social conditions which determine the function of sport. This paper, therefore, should be regarded only as a cue of gaining more explicit understanding about complicated functions of sport in contemporary society.
Multicomponent forces were exerted and recorded electrically upon the measuring platform, on which subjects landed from standing position. These experiments were designed in four measuring conditions of landing motion and were aimed to obtain data of shock-absorbability in these activities. Experimental conditions were (1) landing posture-soft or hard motion, (2) attaching load to the body- 0, 5 or 10kg, (3) height of standing at jumping-70 or 110cm and (4) coefficient of attaching spring on the platform - 0 or 1.05kg/mm. Analyzing these recording data of multicomponent forces by the control theory, landing motions were divided into the absorbable and the non-absorbable motions for external disturbances and function of absorbability was measured and estimated quantitatively. That absorbability was assumed by the following value α=Hf/At (Hf : amplitude of max. force, At : absorbed time). When absorbable motions were shown in these landing experiments, the vertical force was composed of one phase of force peak, but on the other hand when non-absorbable motions were revealed that peak of force was made of two phase and also fore-backward and left-rightward forces were deviated from the center line of stability. Characteristics of the most absorbable landing motion were shown on the constant value of multicomponent forces in spite of many disturbances exerted from external load, height and spring. Then the length of absorbed time in absorbable force waves was marked in the oscillation of multicomponent forces and large angle of declining curves were characterized remarkedly.
This study was designed to determine the relationship of muscular strength with swimming performance. For this purpose, fifteen muscular strength tests and thirteen swimming performance tests were administrated to 153 skilled college male swimmers. The findings are surmmarized as follows; 1) The dynamic strength which was measured by arm-pulls, sit-ups, and squat-jump showed significant correlation with most of swimming performance tests. However, the static strength which was measured by push arm strength, pull arm strength, abdominal strength, and leg strength (up-ward) did not show such correlation. 2) For the crawl stroke, the static strength which Was measured by back strength, grip strength, arm strength, and leg strength (down-Ward) showed no significant correlation with 200m and/or 400m swimming performance tests. Significant correlation between the static strength and performances, however, was found for such shorter distances as 25m, 50m, 100m, and/or 200m. Dynamic strength which was measured by arm-pulls, sit-ups, and squat-jump showed significant correlation with all swimming performance tests from 25m to 400m. 3) For the distance of 25m, the following correlations were statistically significant: the performances in breast stroke with the records in back strength and push arm strength; those of back stroke with leg strength (down-ward) and squat jump; and those of butterfly stroke with squat jump. For the distance of 200m, however, these correlations were not significant. 4) The performances in butterfly stroke showed significant correlation with sit-ups, arm-pulls, and squat-jump. The same performances, however, did not show any correlation with the static strength which wan measured by back strength, grip strength, arm strength, push arm strength, and leg strength. 5) In 25m swimming performance tests, the sit-ups did not show significant correlation only with breast stroke, while the push arm strength and vertical jump showed significant correlation only with breast stroke. In 200m swimming performance tests, the sit-ups did not show significant correlation only with breast stroke, while the vertical jump showed significant correlation only with breast stroke. 6) In 25m swimming performance test, the arm strength and push-ups showed significant correlation only with crawl stroke. In 200m swimming performance test, the arm strength, push-ups, and leg strength (down-ward) showed significant correlation only with crawl stroke. 7) The total amount of contribution of all the muscular strength tests to the swimming performance was found highest in the 25m crawl arm pull (42.1%), and lowest in the 200m breast stroke (17.1%). 8) In most of swimming performance tests, more than 70% of total amount of contribution of all the muscular strength tests can be explained by less than half of all the test items experimented. 9) In case of 25m breast stroke, 91.4% of total amount of contribution of all the muscular strength tests can be explained by five tests; grip strength (left hand), squat-jump, grip strength (right hand), vertical jump, and arm-pulls. In case of 400m crawl stroke, 93.0% by six tests; arm-pulls, squat-jump, sit-ups, leg strength (up-ward), leg strength (down-ward), and arm strength (right hand).
It is difficult to obtain the accurate data of the joint motion by means of the conventional electrogoniometer with a fixed axis of rotation, because the joint has a migrating axis of rotation. This study was designed to develop the electrogoniometer which is able to measure the joint angle more accurately. The experiments were focused on measurement of the joint angle during knee flexion-extension. In order to determine the motion of the knee joint, the roentgenograms of the joint were taken at various positions during knee flexion-extension. It was confirmed that the axis of rotation migrated forward with knee flexion. Thus, new electrogoniometer provided with sliding arm structure was designed and constructed. The arms were extended and shortened by themselves with knee flexion-extension. To check the accuracy of the new electrogoniometer, the x-ray TV images of the knee joint wearing this goniometer were recorded continuously during flexion-extension In addition, the roentgenograms were taken simultaneously. These inspections clearly showed that the electrogoniometer followed the migration of the axis of rotation quite accurately, and the arms were kept parallel to tibia and femur, respectively. Judging from these results, it was validated that the new electrogoniometer was a reliable device to measure the knee joint angle with high degree of accuracy.
According to the figures calculated from the photogrammetric data of take-off in running high jump, the mechanical energy (potential energy plus kinetic energy) of the center of gravity of the body and the distance from the center of gravity of the body to the contacting point of the take-off foot with the ground ("s"), when plotted against time, showed concaved curves in which the minimum values were reached at about 0.05 to 0.07 sec. after the contact of the take-off foot with the ground. The smoothed curve of ground reaction (F^^-s) recorded by the forceplate showed a convexed curve with its maximum at about 0.05 to 0.07 sec. It was possible to interpret the relationship among these changes by the model of spring-mass system in which the center of gravity of the body is connected by a spring to the contacting point of the take-off foot with the ground. In order to satisfy the condition that the spring constant of the model used in this study is positive and the model is to keep the physical effectiveness, "s" must be smoothed so that the time of its minimal value coincide with the time of the maximal value of F^^-s. The correlations between the height of the bar cleared and each of the spring constant, the proper period of the model and the take-off time were not significant. However, in most of the cases, the significant correlation was observed between the height cleared and the "take-off ratio" (the ratio of the take-off time to the proper period of the model) of the same subject. In accordance with the rise of height cleared, some subjects showed a decreasing pattern of the "take-off ratio," while the others showed an increasing pattern. In case of the subject whose record reached 2.20m, a highly significant positive correlation (r =0.968) was observed between the height cleared and the take-off ratio. For the height above 1.90m, the take-off ratios of this particular subject (0.303-0.331) were larger than those (0.248-0.313) of the three other subjects whose best record reached only to 2.00m.