体育学研究
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
最新号
選択された号の論文の16件中1~16を表示しています
総説
  • 乳房の傷害とスポーツブラの着用に焦点をあてて
    武田 理, 藤岡 朱音, 広野 泰子, 片岡 千恵
    2024 年 69 巻 p. 97-108
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/04/20
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2024/03/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The female breast is known to be affected by mastalgia and discomfort due to its lack of anatomical support, irregular movement, and high forces during daily life and exercise. Excessive breast motion has been associated with exercise-induced breast pain, which can negatively affect performance, or even prevent some women from participating in physical activity. This study systematically reviewed major studies on women’s exercise and breast-related injuries, breast motion during exercise, and the function of sports bras in order to 1) understand factors affecting female breasts during exercise, and the effectiveness of sports bras in prevention of breast injury, and 2) identify issues related to the wearing of sports bras during exercise.
     In recent years, many studies have focused on sports bras and breast motion during exercise. These studies mainly employed biomechanical methods with treadmill running, and their results and conclusions differed. Similarly, multiple studies found different sports bra usage rates. On the other hand, many studies have agreed that breast motion during exercise should be reduced and that sports bras are effective for achieving this, but that many women choose the wrong bra size. These results point to a lack of knowledge of this issue among women. An intervention study of female students showed that better sports bra knowledge improved their ability to choose a bra providing support that was more appropriate for the intended level of physical activity and breast size. These findings indicate the need for educational approaches to better breast protection and injury prevention.
  • 笠間 秀一, 坂木 晴世, 遠藤 英子
    2024 年 69 巻 p. 151-168
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/05/22
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2024/04/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Purpose: Based on a literature review, this study aimed to identify factors associated with outbreaks among athletes during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to consider infection prevention measures for athletes.
    Methods: We performed a scoping review of literature published in online databases from 2019 to February 28, 2023, based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Information on the selected references was organized and analyzed qualitatively, and text mining was performed to create association diagrams for co-occurrence associations of the detected words.
    Results: Twelve references were selected for this study, and we extracted [characteristics of athletes and classification of sports], [factors that increase the risk of infection], and [symptoms and characteristics of infection]. Based on the results, the causes of COVID-19 outbreaks in athletes were divided into 3 categories: [personal factors other than sports], [factors related to playing under sports organizations], and 3 closely related situations related to athletes’ behavior and environment.
    Conclusion: Outbreaks were common among all types of athletes and sports. The first infections were due to non-sport-related personal factors, and outbreaks occurred when the infection was introduced into the team. Furthermore, infection was spread due to personal and collective factors related to sports. Outbreaks may be prevented by avoiding infections of individuals in their daily life. The present results suggest that infection control measures based on the “ three Cs” in situations unique to sports can help prevent outbreaks.
原著論文
  • 坂本 将基, 高柳 暁斗, 安東 大輔
    原稿種別: 原著論文
    2024 年 69 巻 p. 1-16
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/02/06
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2023/12/23
    ジャーナル フリー
     This study investigated the characteristics of visual behavior in skilled kendoists while judging the validity of strikes. A total of 19 expert and 19 novice kendoists were asked to judge the validity of strikes for men (head armor), do (side trunk covered by a stomach and chest protector), or kote (lower forearm covered by a gauntlet). Simultaneously, the participants' eye movements were recorded at 30 Hz, and the location at which their gaze was directed was identified. Additionally, the pupil area was calculated for each frame. Both expert and novice kendoists focused on the striker's shinai (bamboo sword) during the phase from 900 ms to 600 ms before striking, and on the site struck during the phase from the moment of striking to 300 ms after striking. However, during the phase from 600 ms before the strike to just before the strike, the experts tended to switch their gaze from the strikefur's shinai to the striking site earlier than the novices. Furthermore, the pupil areas of the experts were correlated with their years of experience in judging the validity of a strike to the men. The gaze behavior specific to expert kendoists, such as observing the striking area during the phase just before striking while exhibiting intense scrutiny, may be related to their superior ability to judge the validity of strikes.
  • 山下 龍一郎, 森井 大樹
    2024 年 69 巻 p. 17-32
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/02/06
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2023/12/27
    ジャーナル フリー
     Sports skills are acquired and developed on a subjective basis involving elements such as individual consciousness and sensing. Sports skills are not fixed elements, but change and evolve with time. In gymnastics, the backward giant swing on the horizontal bar is an extremely important basic skill, as mastering it largely determines the standard of horizontal bar performance. A conventional theory regarding this skill has spread both nationally and internationally. It posits that rotational acceleration is created by snapping, which requires breaking the shoulders and maximizing the extension and flexion of body joints to tap the body's hidden limits. In contrast, a top world-level performer who was the subject of the present study has argued that keeping the body tight rather than breaking is the key, thus completely going against the commonly held theory. The technical characteristics and significance of this gymnast's approach were investigated by category analysis based on the phenomenological movement theory. This revealed that this top performer created rotational acceleration by exploiting the reaction of the horizontal bar by maximizing its bounce. This bar reaction was produced by generating tension in the body during overhang phases by staying tight to prevent the shoulders, waist and chest from extending.
  • 奈良 光晴
    原稿種別: 研究論文
    2024 年 69 巻 p. 41-57
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/02/28
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2024/01/24
    ジャーナル フリー
     As regional sport has been raised as an important policy issue, this study examined the autonomy and independence of the Japan Sport Association (JSPO) as a private sport governing body based on discussions of governance. This was based on the fact that the JSPO defines sport as a universal culture based on enjoyment of free physical activity, in contrast to the definition of sport provided by the Japanese government in the Basic Act on Sports.
     Positioning the governance of sport as a way to address sport-related issues and dividing the governance of sport between the need to improve the organization's management and the methodology of decision-making in relation to the realization of methods that are suited to Japan, it is clear that conventional discussion of sports governance in Japan is biased toward the former. Moreover, it has become clear from overseas cases that such discussions have harmful effects such as strengthening of supervision by the government. In view of the lack of consideration of decision-making methods designed to realize the ideal form of sport in Japan, this study examined the ideal state of the JSPO from the viewpoint of public policy theory and public administration, and particularly social governance, which covers the state and activity of various civil sectors acting in cooperation.
     Based on the discussion promoted by Kiku (2001), it became clear that sport as defined and promoted by the JSPO has a public face and is subject to discussion throught social governance. In addition, it is considered that the JSPO can secure its autonomy and independence from its role as a social governance actor. Analysis of the JSPO's medium-term policy suggested that the ratio of subsidies to income, and discussions regarding the definition of sports at conferences, etc., revealed that the JSPO lacks autonomy and independence, and that issues of social governance remain to be addressed. These findings suggest that the JSPO needs autonomy and independence to promote sport under its own definition, based on discussions of social governance.
  • 大坪 健太, 春日 晃章, 山次 俊介, 中野 貴博
    原稿種別: 研究論文
    2024 年 69 巻 p. 59-72
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/03/26
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2024/02/10
    ジャーナル フリー
     The main purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement from multiple perspectives by linking data from the National Physical Fitness and Exercise Survey, and the National Assessment of Educational Attainment and Progress, targeting 1,213 6th grade elementary school students. Additionally, we examined the basic exercise, learning, and lifestyle factors related to the characteristics of physical fitness and academic achievement in a composite manner. The main results were as follows:
     1) Although a significant positive correlation was observed between physical fitness and academic achievement, the degree of association was low.
     2) There were significant differences in the average number of correct responses to the achievement test depending on the children's physical fitness level. Children with higher physical fitness levels tended to have higher academic achievement in all items. However, children in physical fitness assessment group E had significantly lower academic achievement scores, suggesting that the children with high physical fitness tended to have higher academic achievement.
     3) Multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the influence of lifestyle on both physical fitness and academic achievement. This revealed that 3 items – exercise time on weekdays and weekends and homework effort – were significantly related to physical fitness, 5 items – screen time on weekdays and weekends, homework effort, study preparation and review, and reading time on weekdays – were significantly related to academic achievement.
     The present results have revealed the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement in upper elementary school students, as well as the characteristics of the combined relationship of basic habits to both.
  • 高橋 直己, 岩崎 領, 久保田 浩史, 新海 宏成
    2024 年 69 巻 p. 89-96
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/04/10
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2024/02/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    Race walking is a discipline of athletics recognized at Olympic and World Championship level. According to World Athletics technical rule 54.2, race walking is a progression of steps taken so that the walker maintains contact with the ground without any visible loss of contact (at least to the human eye). The aims of this study were (a) to verify the cognition of the flight time by race walking judges that might be necessary for the decision of loss of contact consistent with the rule wording and (b) to identify other motion factors that might affect judgment during race walking. Seven participants who received a Yellow-Paddle (violation of the technical definition) from 1 judge who was included in this study (yellow paddle group) and 7 participants who did not receive a Yellow-Paddle (no-yellow paddle group) during the race walking event were analyzed. The walking motions of these participants were recorded by 2 high-speed cameras (100 fps). Referring to the handbook for competition officials in Japan and previous studies, several judgment items (such as flight time, heel height, and shank and knee joint angle) were compared between the 2 groups. No significant difference in flight time between the 2 groups was evident, indicating that the judge was unable to judge the loss of contact violation accurately. However, the vertical heel position was significantly higher in the yellow paddle group than in no-yellow paddle group. Also, the knee joint angle was significantly more flexed in the former. Therefore, to avoid violation, keeping the heel in a low position with less flexion of the knee joint after toe-off with the ground may be significant.
  • 学修者特性および学修・教授行動を要因とした決定木分析による検討
    西田 順一, 橋本 公雄, 木内 敦詞, 中須賀 巧, 藤原 大樹, 山本 浩二, 藤塚 千秋
    2024 年 69 巻 p. 109-124
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/04/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2024/02/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    While learning outcomes in university physical education (PE) courses have previously been identified, details of the factors influencing them are very limited. In this context, the present study was conducted to examine the conditions that influence the learning outcomes of university PE courses, focusing on “learner characteristics” and “learning/ teaching behavior”as potential factors. A questionnaire survey was conducted among university students who had taken general PE courses. The study assessed learning outcomes using the Perceived Benefits Scale in university First-Year PE classes (PBS-FYPE). “Learner characteristics” were mainly assessed using the Japanese version of the Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI-J), ENcode, Decode, COntrol, REgulate communication skill scales (ENDCOREs), and the Bidimensional Resilience Scale (BRS). In addition, “learning/teaching behavior” was mainly assessed using the Experience Scale in University Physical Education Classes (ESUPEC), the motivational climate scale in PE classes, and the teaching behavior of PE teachers. A total of 1,499 (803 male and 696 female, mean age: 19.1 ±0.9 years) participants completed the questionnaire. The findings, based on decision tree analysis using classification and regression trees (CART), suggested that aspects of PE class learning/teaching behavior such as challenge, cooperation, and enjoyment experience were the factors that had most influence on perceived benefits, rather than “learner characteristics”. However, PE teacher “empathy/ consideration”, student “degree of lesson willingness” and the class “mastery climate” were also identified as potential influencing factors. In particular, the CART analysis yielded a score of ›9.5 for “acquisition of exercise skills and training methods” and ›29.5 for “empathy/ consideration”. The study highlighted the importance of focusing on the content of the lessons and the teaching methods that satisfy the sport experience of students and thus enhance perceived benefits. To further understand the causal relationship between such factors and learning outcomes, longitudinal surveys and intervention studies will be necessary. The present findings should help to improve the design and delivery of university PE courses, and thus enhance the learning outcomes of students.
  • M-GTAを用いた分析
    泉 彩夏, 片岡 千恵, 佐藤 貴弘
    原稿種別: 研究論文
    2024 年 69 巻 p. 125-137
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/05/16
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2024/03/14
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study was to clarify background factors related to difficulties in teaching sexuality among health and physical education teachers. Seven health and physical education teachers (5 males and 2 females) from junior high schools and high schools participated, and data were analyzed using the M-GTA method. As a result, 16 concepts and 6 categories were extracted. The participants had (a) “low self-confidence about instructional competency regarding sex-related content”, (b) “concern about transdisciplinary collaboration with other teachers and families”, (c) “concern during hands-on practices”, (d) “reluctance to use educational resources”, (e) “teaching in one’s own way”, and (f) “beliefs about sexuality”. There were difficulties in understanding that students were at a stage in their development where their interests in sexuality were increasing, and that they may not be able to receive appropriate guidance due to their gender and gender perceptions. With regard to “concerns in practical situations”, they felt “uneasiness in responding to students’ reactions” and “concern about how students would receive the content of instruction”. In the future, it will be important to offer teachers various opportunities for learning how to use instructional methods and practicing pedagogy during teacher training.
  • 多母集団同時分析を用いた性差の検討
    山本 浩二, 中須賀 巧, 島本 好平, 杉山 佳生, 尼子 尚公
    2024 年 69 巻 p. 169-185
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/05/29
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2024/04/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study was to examine the causal relationship between students ’ perception of feedback and learning outcomes in physical education classes based on data from a 3-point longitudinal survey of junior high school students.
    The surveys were conducted 3 times in June-July 2022, November-December 2022, and February-March 2023. A total of 596 students (305 boys, 291 girls, 257 first-year students, 205 second-year students, and 134 third year students) who responded to all surveys without missing any questions were included in the analysis. The content of the survey was a feedback cognitive measurement scale(praise, advice for motor skills, reprimands for class behavior, criticism for motor skills) and a set of items assessing learning outcomes(learning motor skills, cultivating communication skills, acquiring knowledge on body and movement, feeling the attraction of physical activities, and improving physical capacity) in physical education classes. In the analysis, the validity of the 3-wave cross-lagged effect model was verified using structural equation modeling.
    The results of the analysis revealed respective causal relationships starting from feedback and learning outcomes, specifically: (1) A cyclical causal relationship between learning outcomes and perception of positive and corrective feedback in the form of praise and advice for motor skills was demonstrated only for boys. (2) There were differences between boys and girls in their perception of positive and corrective feedback depending on their learning outcomes. (3) No significant effect of negative feedback on learning outcomes was evident for both boys and girls.
    It was considered important for teachers to give positive feedback on exercise tasks in physical education classes. In particular, it is necessary to consider how to assign tasks to girls and the degree of task difficulty, and to provide them with a sufficient amount of information in the form of feedback. Therefore, it was confirmed that each subscale had generally satisfactory reliability and validity. Finally, the need for validation of the causal model and case studies for the goals of health and physical education were raised as future issues.
  • 松倉 啓太, 平嶋 裕輔, 沼津 直樹
    2024 年 69 巻 p. 213-227
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/05/31
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2024/03/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study investigated the diving motions of top-level goalkeepers in response to different situations, such as the position from which the shot is released and the number of touches leading up to the shot. The sample was a shooting scene from the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia, and the shooting position and the number of touches were classified. In addition, the diving motions of the goalkeeper were classified into 3 types based on the leg motions leading up to takeoff from the ground, and the number of diving motions per shooting pattern was verified. The results revealed that the frequency of diving motions differed depending on the position from which the shot was delivered. The frequency of occurrence of each diving motion in the area close to the goal was significantly greater when the opponent shot with 1 touch than with 2 or more touches. These results suggest a relationship between the situation in which the shot is released and the choice of diving motion by the goalkeeper.
実践研究
  • 戦術行為に着目して
    竹中 美帆, 會田 宏, 佐々木 陽一朗
    原稿種別: 研究論文
    2024 年 69 巻 p. 139-149
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/05/17
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2024/04/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study aimed to clarify the tactical actions and signature techniques of elite female kendoists. For this purpose, we conducted interviews with 3 female kendoists who had competed at international level, and analyzed their narratives qualitatively. Our findings were as follows:
    (1) In the preparation stage, before using their most accomplished waza, the best players adopted a stance with issoku-itto-no-maai before their opponents so that their opponents would not feel the presence of a strike, thereby controlling the maai offense and defense and kehai offense and defense.
    (2) When striking with their signature technique, the best players allowed the opponent to read the signs of their strikes, anticipated the opponent’s reaction to their strikes, and then executed their signature technique.
    (3) The best players adjusted their strategies depending on their opponents. They might choose to initiate the match with their signature move and execute it, or might focus on overwhelming the opponent with their energy without directly responding to the opponent. In such cases, they performed tactical actions with concentration and spirit to finish the opponent with a single blow.
    (4) Outstanding players have reached a state in which they can unconsciously perform their best techniques, which they have learned through repeated practice, during a match. When they demonstrate their best techniques, they are in a state of selflessness and cannot consciously look back.
研究資料
  • 亀田 麻依, 野村 綾子, 今若 太郎, 谷中 拓哉, 稲葉 優希
    原稿種別: 研究論文
    2024 年 69 巻 p. 33-39
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/02/28
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2024/01/24
    ジャーナル フリー
     The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different measurements under 3 surface conditions on jump distance in the standing long jump. The participants were 15 members of a college male basketball team. In the experiment, each participant performed standing long jump tests under 3 surface conditions for maximal distance: 1) tartan track take off - sand landing, 2) wooden floor take off - artificial turf landing, and 3) mat take off - mat landing conditions. The jump distance was measured 3 times for the 3 conditions with a measuring tape, from which the longest jump distance was selected. The data were analyzed to assess differences in the conditions for jump distance and individual variability. The mat-mat condition resulted in lower performance than the other 2 conditions (by 3–5%). No significant differences in jump distance were found between the tartan track take off - sand landing and wooden floor take off - artificial turf landing conditions. In terms of individual variability, there were no significant differences in the coefficient of variation of the jump distance among the 3 conditions. These results suggest the need for awareness of the environmental surface conditions, since measurement of the standing long jump distance on soft surfaces, such as under mat take off - mat landing conditions, could result in a shortening of the distance by approximately 3-5%. In addition, the measurement environment should be standardized as far as possible when performing cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluations, as different surface conditions might result in different measurements.
  • 黒川 隆志, 西山 健太
    2024 年 69 巻 p. 73-88
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/03/26
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2024/02/06
    ジャーナル フリー
     This study investigated 1 class in the 5th grade of elementary school (12 boys and 16 girls) who received coaching in endurance running using 3 methods : the all-out method, in which children ran at almost full exertion; the inner/outer track (I/OT) method, in which the duration of exercise was equalized by having slower/faster runners use the inner/outer running tracks, respectively; and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) method, in which children ran at a “fairly light — somewhat hard” intensity. We compared the changes in awareness regarding endurance running and explored the factors responsible for these changes based on exercise intensity and pace strategy. Our results were as follows: 1) Before implementation of the coaching methods, the percentage of those who perceived endurance running favorably was significantly higher for boys (83.3%) than for girls (43.8%) (p = .046) and for other question items, scores for boys were generally higher. 2) After implementation of the coaching methods, favorable responses remained high at 91.7% for boys and increased to 62.5 - 75.0% for girls, irrespective of coaching method. However, there were no significant differences among the 3 methods, and no tendency for the positivity rate to increase for any particular method. 3) For each coaching method, running speed showed a U-shaped curve, with no apparent gender difference. However, the running speed and stride length that contributed to it were significantly higher in boys than in girls. 4) Regardless of gender, the heart rate (HR) observed for each coaching method rose rapidly immediately after the start, and HRs at the 40% and 100% time points had increased to 180.9 -186.5 bpm and 182.1 - 195.3 bpm, respectively, there being no differences among the 3 methods. 5) The RPE taught before running and the RPE just after running almost matched. However, the RPE just after running was 6 (HR 60 beats/min) lower than the HR at the end of running. 6) In conclusion, there were no significant differences between the 3 coaching methods for both sexes in terms of favorable attitudes, irrespective of the type of endurance running, pace pattern or HR. However, endurance running ability and attitude towards endurance running were less favorable for girls than for boys, suggesting that a coaching method designed to develop a favorable attitude is particularly desirable for girls.
事例報告
  • 東京都立農産高等学校の「家庭科保健」を対象として
    近藤 雄大
    2024 年 69 巻 p. 199-212
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/05/31
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2024/05/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    This case study aimed to identify the characteristics of kateikahoken, which was conceptualized and practiced by Mitsuo Yuzawa and Yoko Yanada at the Tokyo Metropolitan Nousan High School in the 1970s. Specifically, the collected materials on kateikahoken were analyzed using the instructional design method (ADDIE model).
    The study results were as follows.
    First, the impetus for the conception of kateikahoken was (1) the lack of facilities and equipment as the gender ratio of the student population reversed and the school became a predominantly female school, and (2) changes in students’ views on sexual morality because of social influences such as media reports on sexuality.
    Next, the characteristics of kateikahoken practice were: (1) a unit to review the students’ own past, such as “Science of Me”, and a class to consider the students’ future, such as “Science of Sex” were implemented; (2) a class style employing discussion, research, and investigation centered upon group learning to increase the students’ motivation and interest in learning; and (3) Yuzawa and Yanada analyzed the students’ health issues as a lack of understanding of human relationships, such as love and romance among humans, and created realistic lesson content that would be useful in their real lives after graduation.
    Finally, the practical issues of kateikahoken were: (1) difficulty with learning individualization owing to the diverse home environments of the students; (2) the factual content of the material, which makes explanations dependent on the experiential nature of the teachers; and (3) the incompleteness of the systematics and learning content.
二次出版論文
  • 細川 賢司, 矢野 望夢, 住本 純
    2024 年 69 巻 p. 187-197
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/05/29
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2024/04/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study conducted a scoping review to clarify the outcomes and issues in martial arts intervention studies for Autism Spectrum Disorders(ASD).
    Methods:This study followed the PRISMA extension for Scoping Reviews(PRISMA-ScR)to collect andselect articles. Searches were conducted using PubMed and Science Direct databases, using terms such as “martial arts” and “Autism”. The collected literature was screened according to eligibility criteria and the quality of the studies was assessed using the PEDro scale.
    Results:In the end, 22 articles were selected, showing multifaceted effects on the improvement of ASD coresymptoms, socio-emotional functions, cognitive functions, physical functions, and lifestyle. On the other hand,research gaps were identified regarding study areas, subjects, and methods.
    Conclusion:Additional high-quality intervention studies and meta-analyses are needed to clarify thetherapeutic significance of martial arts.
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