The aim of this study is to analyze the features of the theory of Noh proposed by its founder, Zeami, from the view point of the semantics of dance. The semantics of dance which is rather a working hypothesis at present, is designed to move toward the construction of general theory of dance. First of all, Zeami's view of the succession and development of the art of Noh is discussed. Zeami claims that the fundamental conditions for the succession and development of the Noh are to continue hard exercises, to master the techniques of performing, and to compose Noh play. Zeami sets nine stages of practice for Noh. Secondly, The Nikyoku-Santai-ron, which is the discipline of exercises or practice of Noh, compared with Laban's theory of "Effort". It is suggested in this study that these two disciplines have some similarities. Thirdly, by using the results in the field of semiotics and psychology, the Mokuzen-Shingo-setsu, which is the performer's preparation for the performance of Noh, is discussed. Mead's theory of "self" is applied to the analysis of this theory. Zeami's disciplines of Gaken, Riken, and Riken-no-Ken, which are stated in the same line of the Mokuzen-Shingo-setsu, seem to be in correlation to the "I", "me", and "self" in the Mead's theory. Zeami argues the importance of the spectator or decoder in the process of performing Noh, by which his theory of Noh is charactrized. By using the above results, the working hypothesis concerning the process of performing dance is revised and enlarged.
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of achievement motivation on motor performance in competitive conditions. The hypotheses were derived from Atkinson's Expectancy-Value Model and Yerkes-Dodson's Law. There were 76 achieve success subjects (Ts group) and 76 avoid failure subjects (T_F group), chosen from 421 fifth grade boys on the basis of their scores on the McClelland's Thematic Apperception Test and the Sarason's Test Anxiety Scale for Children. Initially, each group was tested in the zigzag run task and the serial jumping task under the control condition, and then placed into one of the four competitive conditions. The four competitive conditions were competition with inferior, equal and superior ability opponents, and noncompetition. The subjective probability of success expected for the first three conditions was 0.75, 0.50, 0.25, respectively. Each group was given the same motor task under these competitive conditions. Performance changes from control condition to competitive conditions were analyzed by two-factor analysis of covariance (2 achievement motivation×4 competitive conditions). The main results obtained were as follows: (1)In the zigzag run task, both the Ts group and the T_F group increased their competitive performances, with the Ts group showing a higher increase in performance under competition with equal ability opponents than under competition with inferior and superior opponents. (2)In the serial jumping task, the Ts group did not increase their competitive performances, but the T_F group showed a greater decrease in performance under competition with equal ability opponents than under competition with inferior and superior opponents. It would appear that a knowledge of motivations both to achieve success or to avoid failure would enhance the possibility of predicting success in competitive situations.
In order to point out certain suggestions useful in skill instruction of diving action in racing swim, the bodily action was analyzed upon taking a 16mm movie. The findings may be summerised as follows; 1)During the "get set" moment, placing the center of gravity high and close to the front edge of the starting table would give some advantages for the swimmer. 2)At the moment when knees are flexed maximally during the starting action, placing the center of gravity close to the front edge of the starting table is advised. 3)Exertion of strong enough power in explossively extending the knees and hips from the point when these two joints are flexed maximally would be the key for the effective diving action. 4)The direction of take-off is often suggested to be slightly upward. While the major factor to determine this direction lies in the extension action of knees and hips, the snapping action at the ankle joint seems also to have some implication in controlling the direction of take-off. 5)Hyperextention of body during the flight after take-off may be acceptable, if the body is maintained reasonably straight at the moment of body entering into water.
The purposes of this study was, 1)to clarify the factorial structure of agility; and 2)to establish an agility test battery. Twelve test variables, which were selected from the viewpoint of three composite elements of agility, 1)speed of repetitive movement, 2)quickness of reaction, 3)quicknees in completing a given motion, were administered to 47 basketball players. Oblique multiple group factor solution was applied to the correlation matrix which were calculated with twelve test variables in order to clarify the factorial structure of agility. Therefore, the following four factors were extracted: 1)quickness of repeated motion; 2)quickness / of simple reaction; 3)quickness of multi-choice reaction; and 4)quickness of motion. In order to establish the agility test battery, four test variables, consisted of criss-cross jump (x_1), RT in the jumping reaction time test (x_2), RT in the multi-choice reaction time test (x_3), and MT in the multi-choice reaction time test (x_4), were selected from each factor taking account of the factorial validity and also of the practicability of tests. The formula (BPAS) for estimating the agility score of basketball players was deviced as follows: BPAS=0.013x_1-4.303x_2-3.759x_3-1.744x_4+3.454 The validity of BPAS was tested to be high from the two standpoints: 1)whether skilled basketball players could be discriminated from novice basketball players by BPAS; and 2)whether the significant differences between BPAS average of skilled basketball players and that of novice ones could be found.
Studies on sports leaders in community have increased recently, but very few studies have been conducted on the factors affecting their activities. So, the present paper attempts to clarify the realities of sports leaders' guidance action in community and the factors affecting the action from the sociological point of view. A survey was conducted to 357 male sports instructors recognized by Japan Amateur Sports Association. The questionnaire was distributed and collected by mail in June, 1976. The research here is based on the materials obtained from 266 subjects in order to clarify the realities of the guidance action, and 164 subjects to clarify the factors contributing to the action. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Sports instructors' guidance action is mainly to lead inhabitants practically in terms of some aspects of sports and this is not inconsistent with their idea as sports leaders. However, the problem lies in the fact that many of them coach the sport-groups on a high athletic level. 2. The sports instructors who assume their practical leadership more often have following characteristics, compared with those who do less. First, there are more unmarried persons; secondly, there are more teachers, self-managers of commerce or industry and men who are engaged in profession; thirdly, more leaders perform their guidance action voluntarily; fourthly, more leaders are reward-directed in terms of guidance and victory-directed toward sports; fifthly, more leaders are in contact with sport-groups and facilities; and sixthly, the athletic level of the sport-groups they guide is high. 3. It can be concluded that the main factors which affect sports instructors' practical leadership are "occupation" among social factors, "attitude toward guidance" and "sports consciousness" among subjective factors, and "sports-group", "sports-facility" and "athletic level of the sports-group" among environmental factors.
The purpose of this investigation was to assess the cardiorespiratory functions during endurance running in young children. Eighteen pre-school boys and girls (mean 6.32 years old) participated in this study as subjects. With progressive ground running method, peak oxygen intake was determined by the Douglas bag method. In addition, heart rate and running speed during 750m and 1500m runs were measured. The results obtained in this investigation were as follows: Peak oxygen intake for boys was 38.3±5.76ml/kg・min and for girls 36.7±3.84ml/kg・min. The linear relationship between running speed and oxygen intake, and between heart rate and oxygen intake was obtained during exercise. Therefore, estimation of the intensity of endurance running was considered to be possible through the measurement of heart rate. At the onset of 750 and 1500m runs, heart rate was increased rapidly and was attained to steady state level in about 40 seconds. In this level heart rate indicated about 190-200 beats/min, which was comparable to the maximal heart rate of subjects. The intensity of the endurance running, therefore, was estimated to be approximately maximum.
The term 'physical education' was coined in the nineteenth century and the general concept of physical education established itself in the U.S. from the end of the last century to this century when it was defined as 'education through the physical'. But as the result of the extension of the term physical education, along with time, the definition came to be criticized as too abstract by physical educators themselves. The purpose of this paper is to make clear what tendency has been seen in the efforts of American scholars who have contributed to the establishment of the concept of physical education. For this purpose, the present author has chosen twenty-two volumes written by leading scholars in physical education from 1960 through 1976, and has made a survey of their ideas and definitions of physical education. The chief findings are as follows: 1. From 1960 to 1963 scholars employed the traditional definition of physical education as 'education through the physical'. They are: Duncan, Watson (1960), Shepard (1960) and Cowell and France (l963). 2. In the 1964-1970 period, the new concept of physical education as 'the art and science of human movement' was suggested by such scholars as: Felshin (1967) and Zeigler (1968). 3. In the 70's the scholars seem unable to define the concept of physical education without referring to 'human movoment'. They are represented by: Felshin (1972), Seidel and Resick (1972), Siedentop (1972), Vanderzwaag (1972), Nixon and Jewett (1974), Zeigler (1975), and Singer (1976). The fact that 'human movement' has been a key phrase in the definition of physical education can be explained by the circumstances in which physical education has had to confirm its status as an academic discipline in the U.S. It remains to be proved that the definition on that line can be rendered more concrete to become a definitive one.