Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals and Materials
Online ISSN : 1880-6880
Print ISSN : 0021-4876
ISSN-L : 0021-4876
Volume 19 , Issue 1
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
  • Akira Adachi, Shintaro Yamada
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 1-4
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Plain carbon steel is successfully bright-annealed without discoloration of the steel surface in the atmosphere of converted propan gas, generated in a heated retort in which air-gas reaction takes place in the presence of a nickel catalyst.When the input air-gas ratio is changed from 5 to 15, the costituents of the atmosphere gases which are produced in the conversion furnace, heated at 1000°, 900°, and 800°, have been investigated. As the air-gas ratio is increased, the contents of CO2, H2O and N2 increases and H2 and CH4 decreases. As the conversion temperature is increased, the contents of CO and H2 increases and CO2, H2O, and CH4 decrease. The weight change of the specimens (10 mm dia×12 mm) was studied as a measure of carburization and decarburization, and microscopic structure was also investigated. Controlling the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere gases, low carbon steel is annealed without oxidation in the atmosphere of exothermic gas, and high carbon steel is bright-annealed in that of endothermic gas. The constituents of these gases are as follows: Exothermic gas (air-gas ratio 13,) contains CO2 6%, CO 12.8%, CH4 0.5%, H2 12.8%, N2 bal. and endothermic gas (air-gas ratio 7.5) contains CO2 0.0%, CO 23.4%, CH4 0.9%, H2 31%, N2 bal. The conversion temperature of these gases is 930°.
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  • Hikozô Endô, Saburô Shimodaira, Yoshinobu Sawada
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 4-8
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The effect of additions of copper, molybdenum and titanium as alloy elments to prévent the localized corrosion of high chromium steels in acid river water has been studied. These elements are very effective and the corrosion rate of high chromium steels is greatly reduced. Titanium is above all effective. Some thirteen per cent chromium steels containing proper quantity of titanium are scarcely corroded in acid river water.
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  • Hikozô Endô, Saburô Shimodaira, Yoshinobu Sawada
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 8-12
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The corrodinility of high chromium steels has been electrochemically studied in very dilute acid aqueous solutions. We represent the measure of passivation tendency of alloys by EpIp=R where Ep is the potential and Ip is the current density of passivation. Strictly speaking, EpQp=C where Qp is the quantity of electricity required for passivation. The values of R derived from the anodic polarization curve are qualitatively in good agreement with the loss in weight by corrosion. The cathodic polarization of high chromium steels containing copper and molybdenum or titamium are nearly similar to that of plain high chromium steels. By the criterion that the alloys are passive when the natural electrode potentials are noblar than the hydrogen electrode potentials, the addition of titamium as alloy element is remarkably effective.
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  • Hidehiro Gotô, Shirô Watanabe
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 12-14
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The present research, following the first and second reports, was carried out on the influences of arsenic on the determination of titanium and molybdenum in iron and steel. The methods adopted to determine titanium were as follows: (1) the volumetric method using liquid zinc amalgam and standard ferric sulfate solution, (2) the above method applied after the separation of titanium as phosphate and (3) the gravimetric method as TiO2. In the titration of titanium not isolated, the presence of 0.15% arsenic produced about 0.03% higher results for titanium.So the removal of arsenic with bromine in hydrochloric acid was necessary. In the gravimetric and volumetric determination after the separation of titanium with sodium thiosulfate or ammonium phosphate there was no interference by arsenic. For the determination of molybdenum, the studies were carrid out both on the volumetric method after the separation of it with sodium hydroxide and the gravimetric method with α-Benzoinoxime. The results were as follows: In the volumetric method it was necessary to remove arsenic as arsenic tribromide, since the presence of 0.16% of arsenic produced 0.03% higher value for molybdenum. But in the gravimetric method, arsenic had no influence on the results.
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  • 1955 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 14
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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  • T. Imura, T. Suzuki
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 15-18
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The aim of this study is to show directly, by an elaborated chemical etching technique, some regular arrangements of dislocations, all or nearly all of which form the predicted planer networks in F.C.C. metals. The composition of the etching reagent used here was as follows: methyl alcohol, 25∼50 cc; hydrochloric acid,32 cc; nitric acid, 50 cc; and hydrofluoric acid, 2 cc; (a modification of the one devised by Lacombe and Beaujard. (1947),). The etchpit networks could be detected on the surface of Al single crystals, although not decisively. Their regularity was much worse than that of Al-alloys (described in the 2nd report). The mean spacing between etchpits is 1∼3 μ, and the mean size of hexagonal sub-structure, if any, gives about 10 to 20 μ in linear dimension. A domain composed of the same scheme of the sub-structure seems to extend to 50∼100 μ. The density of etchpits thus obtained is the order of 106 cm−2. In the 1st report, the preliminary consideration and the results obtained from the observation of Al single crystals are discussed.
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  • T. Imura, T. Suzuki
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 19-23
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Similar observations, as described in the 1st report, were also made on the binary Al-Mn, Al-Cr, and Al-Cu alloys. The one-to-one correspondence between etchpit and dislocation-end, and also the regularity of the etchpit networks were much better than those of pure Al, so that detailed discussion was obtainable in these alloys. The experimental procedure is almost similar as that of pure Al. The orientation of the sub-structure is found to be in a fair agreement with the orientation predicted before, i.e. the columnar axis is parallel to ⟨111⟩ direction and the prism faces are parallel to {112} planes. As the content of the alloying element increases, the mesh size of the networks seems to decrease, but on the contrary the domain size increases. The density of dislocation is found to be about 1.5×107 cm−2 in the case of 7.42%Mn alloy. The results are mainly concerned with the structure of the dislocation networks, the effect of alloying elements and the effect of annealing on it. From our observations, some useful knowledge for the underlying structures of dislocations in crystal might be obtained.
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  • Harujiro Sekiguchi, Michio Inagaki
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 24-27
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The authors have investigated the effects of working-degree before annealing, annealing temperature and annealing time on length-change due to annealing after plastic elongation. The results were as follows: (1) If an elongated specimen is annealed at a low temperature, the length of specimen after the annealing increases. The percentage of increase rises with the working-degree. But, if the working-degree becomes so large that a remarkable local contraction occurs, the increase in length diminishes on the contrary. (2) The percentage of increase in length of elongated specimen due to low temperature annealing reaches the maximum at about 500°. (3) If a low carbon steel bar is annealed at higher temperature above the transformation point, the length tends to decrease regardless of working. (4) If an elongated specimen is annealed at about 500°, the length of specimen increases rapidly at first with the increase of annealing time, but the rate of increase shows a gentle slope after the lapse of 30 min∼1 hr. In a highly-worked specimen, the time that is required to attain the gentle slope seems to be shorter. In the case of annealing at 600∼700°, the length decreases with the increase of annealing time on the contrary.
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  • Harujiro Sekiguchi, Michio Inagaki
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 28-31
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The changes in length, volume and diameter due to annealing were investigated with low carbon steel bars elongated or compressed at the room temperature, and the results with elongated specimens and compressed specimens were compared. The authors have discovered the following phenomena: In the case that a low carbon steel bar plastically elongated or compressed is annealed at a low temperature, the dimensional changes due to annealing occur in the same direction as the deformation due to working before annealing. We cannot explain yet this phenomenon satisfactorily, but we propose to this phenomenon “the same direction change of dimension due to annealing after plastic deformation.” In the case of a low carbon steel bar annealed at a higher temperature above A1 transformation point, the length decreases and the diameter increases after the annealing, regardless of working and the direction of deformation due to working.
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  • Susumu Morioka, Kazutaka Sakiyama
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 31-34
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    A series of anodic polarization tests on iron-nickel alloys with varying nickel content were carried out in sulphuric acid solution and the results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) The polarization for anodic dissolution of active alloys is the greater, the higher the nickel content, and an increase in nickel favoured the onset of anodic passivity of the alloy anodes. (2) Though, when a passive condition is reached the anodic dissolution of iron and iron-rich alloys of less than about 60%Ni ceases almost entirely, nickel and nickel-rich alloys of more than about 60%Ni does not cease entirely, the dissolution of the latter due to the anodic oxidation being greater, the higher the nickel content and the higher the anode potentail. (3) Iron-nickel alloys passivated by anodic polarization are only temporarily passive. (4) The α-phase alloys containing less than 30%Ni were found to be about 0.15 volt less noble than the γ-phase alloys containing more than 30%Ni in sulphuric acid solution. (5) The formation of the ordered lattice Ni3Fe in alloys reduced the anodic dissolution of the alloys.
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  • 1955 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 34
    Published: 1955
    Released: November 11, 2008
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  • Kokichi Sano, Shômei Murase, Kazuhisa Okajima, Haruo Abe
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 35-38
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The equilibrium relation between iron-carbon-silicon (up to 4.45%)-manganese (up to 3.62%) alloys and mixturers of methame and hydrogen was investigated at 1000° and the following relation was obtained:
    (This article is not displayable. Please see full text pdf.)
    \ oindentwhere γC is the activity coefficient of carbon adopting that of pure graphite as standard.
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  • Mikio Yamamoto, Jirô Watanabé
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 38-42
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    An etching-cutter, designed for the inclined as well as normal cutting of metal crystal rods, has been constructed. Vinyl-chloride (subjected to the setting treatment) and Saran have been found most suitable as the string of the cutter. Cutting of tin, zinc, iron, and copper crystals can be done in a comparatively short time, showing a smooth cut surface, while cutting of nickel, aluminium, and bismuth crystals requires a long time and produces a rugged, stepped or roughened cut surface. Inclined cutting of cylindrical crystals can practically be made for the inclination of more than 45° against the rod axis. A disk of 1 mm or more in thickness can be cut off from a large crystal with a precision of ±0.2 mm. The volume of crystal lost by cutting is very small, its width being about two times as large as the diameter of the string used. It has been confirmed by X-ray examination that the cut surface is practically strain-free. Finally, it is shown that the etching-cutter technique is very excellent as compared with the paraffin technique.
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  • Kichizo Niwa, Goro Shimaoka
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 43-47
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The structure of single graphite flakes extracted from molten carbon-rich or silicon-rich iron at 1200∼1500° has been studied by electron diffraction transmission method. It has been found that well-developed, relatively large flakes are composed of one single crystal; on the other hand, thin, almost colourless flakes consist of two or three single crystals having such an arrangement that the (0001) planes are parallel to the flake surface, the rotation angle between two crystals being 15, 18, 22, 25 or 28°. Further, it has been shown that the arrangement of atomic layer in each single crystal has α-and β-type or more disordered structure on each occasion. In the diffraction pattern formed by two single crystals new spots have been discovered which can be regarded as “forbidden” reflections. It has been explained that these new spots are due to double diffractions by two crystals of a closely packed aggregate. This explanation has been supported by electron micro-diffraction observation.
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  • Tadashi Chihaya
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 47-50
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Electron-diffraction pattern of selenium films,prepared on formvar films by vacuum evaporation, showed three haloes (Photo. 1). When these films were treated for 1 hour at 90°, the pattern changed to a different diffuse one, and then the sharp rings due to the hexagonal lattice appeared with increasing temperature(Photo. 4). For the purpose of discussion on the blocking-layer in selenium rectifying plates, the formation of CdSe was examined after the evaporation of cadmium on these selenium films. In these cases,an interesting change due to electron-bombardment appeared as shown in Photo. 7. The fine powder from the selenium layer of the rectifying plate and the films vaporized in air showed two strong rings whose interplanar spacings d=2.75, 1.57 Å cannot be expected from a hexagonal lattice. From these results, the present writer suggests the existence of an intermediate state in which a tetragonal lattice (a=3.49 Å, ca=1.28) is formed. To investigate the effect of substrates, their temperatures and the degree of evacuation on the formation of evaporated films, cleavage surfaces of rock-salts were chosen as the substrates. When the temperature of the substrate was lower than 100°, haloes were observed on the formvar films, whereas crystallized portions existed on the rock-salt surface. At higher temperature sharp patterns due to crystallization were obtained, but the pattern of the films evaporated at 200° showed the diffuse rings in addition to the sharp ones.
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  • [in Japanese]
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages A3-A8
    Published: January 20, 1955
    Released: November 11, 2008
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  • [in Japanese]
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages A8-A11
    Published: January 20, 1955
    Released: November 11, 2008
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  • [in Japanese]
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages A12-A16
    Published: January 20, 1955
    Released: November 11, 2008
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages A17-A21
    Published: January 20, 1955
    Released: November 11, 2008
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