Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals and Materials
Online ISSN : 1880-6880
Print ISSN : 0021-4876
ISSN-L : 0021-4876
Volume 32 , Issue 6
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
  • Yoshimoto Wanibe, Kôkich Sano
    1968 Volume 32 Issue 6 Pages 493-497
    Published: 1968
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present work was carried out to drop an aluminum bar onto static liquid iron containing oxygen, and the inclusions forming a layer-like inclusions group were analyzed by the microanalyzer to confirm the results reported in the previous reports. Then, in order to discuss about the microanalysis, the results were compared with the analysis of the standard specimen in which pure alumina powder was buried into pure iron by pressing and sintering. The results are summarized as follows:
    (1) It is inferred from the microanalytical results of the standard specimen that the inclusions with less than about 5.5 μ in diameter have the effect of the matrix at the electron beam diameter of about 1.5 μ. Whether the inclusions are Al2O3 or not can be determined by reckoning backward the alumina content in the inclusions from the relative intensity of iron, but the calculation from the intensity of aluminum is difficult because of its remarkable scattering.
    (2) The inclusions in the inclusions group were analyzed by the microanalyzer to be almost Al2O3; especially at the lower aluminum content in the matrix, all were Al2O3. So the result in the previous reports is now confirmed.
    (3) The microanalytical results of the matrix were discussed by using Philibert’s and Barks’ equations for the adsorption correction. The correctedvalue is not in good agreement with the alminum content reckoned backward from the relative intensity of iron, and this problem has to be discussed further.
    (4) The microanalysis of the inclusions was discussed by the Barks’ equation. The corrected alumina content is in relatively good agreement with that reckoned backward indirectly from iron oxide content, probably because of a very low solubility of FeO in Al2O3. The scattering alumina content, calculated from the intensity of aluminum, however, made the comparision impossible. What causes this scattering remains unknown.
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  • Zenzo Henmi, Takeshi Nagai, Hiroyasu Hojo
    1968 Volume 32 Issue 6 Pages 498-503
    Published: 1968
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The mechanism of precipitation hardening in Fe-50%Ni-3%Ti constant modulus type alloy was studied by microhardness test, thermal dilatation measurement, X-ray diffraction, optical and transmission electron microscopy. When η phase less than 0.1 μ in thickness precipitates at grainboundaries, the alloy achieves a maximum hardness. When this alloy was aged for 2 hr at 800°C, the deformation structure was annealed out and the mean spacing between recrystallized γ phase and coarsened η phase increased and the alloy softened.
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  • Zenzo Henmi, Takeshi Nagai, Hiroyasu Hojo
    1968 Volume 32 Issue 6 Pages 504-509
    Published: 1968
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The mechanism of precipitation hardening in Fe-Ni-Cr-Ti alloy was studied by microhardness test, thermal dilatation measurement, X-ray diffraction, optical and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the mechanism of precipitation hardening in Fe-Ni-Cr-Ti alloy is similar to those in Fe-Ni-Ti alloy. It is an advantageous nature of this alloy that the heat treatment which gives a good constant modulus charactaristic agrees with that which gives excellent mechanical properties. That is, when Fe-Ni-Cr-Ti alloy was aged for 2 hr at 600°C, the η phase precipitates in proper distribution and the alloy is strengthened; after the η phase precipitates, the composition of the γ phase resembles that of Elinvar and the thermoelastic coefficient approaches zero.
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  • Yukiya G. Nakagawa, Ken-ichi Hirano, Shigeyasu Koda
    1968 Volume 32 Issue 6 Pages 510-515
    Published: 1968
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Decomposition in the supersaturated solid solution of Fe-11.3 atomic percent Be alloy has been investigated by optical and transmission electron microscopic observations, thermal analysis, hardness test and electrical resistance measurement, in comparison with the results of the X-ray structural measurements by the previous workers.
    A clear difference has been confirmed between the sequence of structures for ageing temperatures below 400°C and above 500°C. The age hardening below 400°C can mainly be attributed to the massive short range order, the pseudo-FeBe L 20 order, the Fe3Be DO3 order and the side-band structure (sinusoidal modulation of composition), which were detected by the previous X-ray measurements and confirmed by the present specific heat and electrical resistance measurements. The age hardening above 500°C can be attributed to the continuous and the discontinuous precipitation.
    Kinetic analysis of the heat evolution in the specific heat versus temperature curves has shown the activation energy for the formation of DO3 order from L 20 order to be about 25 kcal/mol which appears to be reasonable as for the migration of Be atoms in the bcc lattice of Fe.
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  • Ken-ichi Hirano, Akimichi Hishinuma
    1968 Volume 32 Issue 6 Pages 516-521
    Published: 1968
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Interdiffusion coefficients of bcc α-solid solution of the Fe-Al system in the temperature range between 800° and 1200°C and the γ-loop concentrations have been determined from the diffusion penetration curves obtained by an electron probe microanalyzer.
    The results show that the activation energy for interdiffusion in the disordered phase varies between 30 and 45 kcal/mol while it is about 70 kcal/mol in the ordered phase. The activation energy for the self-diffusion of Al in pure α-Fe or dilute α-solid solution is predicted to be about 40 kcal/mol. This suggests that Al atoms diffuse much faster than Fe atoms in bcc Fe lattice.
    The γ-loop determined from the diffusion penetration curves is somewhat different from those determined by the previous workers. The α⁄α+γ boundary is found at higher Al concentrations, while α+γ⁄γ boundary at lower Al concentrations, than those determined by microscopic observations or thermal analyses.
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  • Hakaru Masumoto, Takeo Kobayashi, Y\={u}etsu Murakami
    1968 Volume 32 Issue 6 Pages 521-524
    Published: 1968
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The present authors previously found that nickel-manganese alloys containing less than about 24%Mn show a high permeability by proper heat treatments and named them Nimalloy. Further, Masumoto, Murakami and others have made a study of the effect of additions of various elements on characteristic properties of nickel-manganese alloys and obtained the highest initial permeability of 76000 and the highest maximum permeability of 441000. In the present paper, the results on the effect of titanium additions on the properties of nickel-manganese is reported: the alloy containing 78.92%Ni, 19.80%Mn and 1.28%Ti shows the highest initial permeability of 20100 when baked at 400°C for 60 hr and the alloy containing 78.66%Ni, 19.29%Mn and 2.05%Ti exhibits the highest maximum permeability of 154000 when baked at 460°C for 11 hr after slow-cooling from 900°C.
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  • Hakaru Masumoto, Hideo Sait\={o}, Y\={u}etsu Murakami, Michio Kikuchi
    1968 Volume 32 Issue 6 Pages 525-528
    Published: 1968
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Single crystals of nickel having a long length were prepared and their thermal expansions and Young’s moduli were measured over the temperature range 0° to 500°C by a dilatometer and by means of a vibrator-controlled oscillator system. From the measured values, the elastic parameters Sij, Young’s modulus for three principal orientations of the single crystals and for a polycrystal of nickel were calculated. It has been known that the temperature changes of the Young’s modulus for the three principal orientations and a polycrystal of nickel are similar to each other, and the calculated values of the Young’s modulus for a polycrystal agrees well with the measured values of the annealed polycrystal specimen. The calculated Young’s moduli at 20°C are 1.21, 2.04, 2.62 and 1.90×1012 dyn/cm2, respectively, for the ⟨100⟩, ⟨110⟩, ⟨111⟩ orientations of the single crystals and for the polycrystal. The crystal anisotropy E⟨111⟩E⟨100⟩ of the nickel single crystal at 20°C and 150°C are 2.17 and 2.49, respectively.
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  • Hakaru Masumoto, Hideo Sait\={o}, Shizuo Kadowaki
    1968 Volume 32 Issue 6 Pages 529-532
    Published: 1968
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Single crystals of palladium having a long length were prepared and their thermal expansions and Young’s moduli were measured over the temperature range 0° to 600°C by a dilatometer and by means of a vibrator-controlled oscillator system. From the measured values, the Young’s moduli in three principal orientations of the single crystals were calculated. The results show that the Young’s moduli at 20°C are 7.35, 13.77 and 19.44×105 kg/cm2 in the orientations of ⟨100⟩, ⟨110⟩ and ⟨111⟩ of the single crystal, respectively. The Young’s moduli in the ⟨100⟩ and ⟨110⟩ orientations of the single crystals decrease with increasing temperature, while the modulus in the ⟨111⟩ orientation increases to a maximum at about 250°C and then gradually decreases. The calculated value of the Young’s modulus for a polycrystal agrees fairly well with the measured value in the polycrystal specimen prepared by melting.
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  • Nobuhisa Matano, Jun Fujiwara
    1968 Volume 32 Issue 6 Pages 533-537
    Published: 1968
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Sulfur in iron and copper alloys with high sulfur contents tends to evaporate as sulfur compounds in the vacuum fusion process and to interfere with the determination of oxygen with the conventional vacuum fusion-oxidation method. Applying the vacuum fusion-gas chromatographic method, the effect of sulfur in the sample on the oxygen determination was investigated and the following results were obtained.
    (1) In the case of Fe-S alloys, the condensable materials in the extracted gases were carbon disulfide, carbonylsulfide and carbon dioxide. The ratio of sulfur as carbon disulfide to total sulfur in the sample was 10∼50 per cent. The ratio of oxygen as carbonylsulfide to total oxygen in the sample was under 1 per cent. The ratio of oxygen as carbon dioxide to total oxygen in the sample was over 3 per cent.
    (2) Cu-S alloys everporated a large quantity of sulfur compounds.
    (3) The oxygen in the sample can readily be determined as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide without the interference of sulfur compounds, when a column of molecular sieve 13X and silicagel connected in series is used.
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  • Masayoshi Hasegawa, Masafumi Okamoto
    1968 Volume 32 Issue 6 Pages 537-542
    Published: 1968
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The strength of C-free Fe-B alloys to which various alloying elements are compositely added in the ‘low-alloying’ range have been investigated, and their strengthening phenomena are discussed. The boron contents in the specimens are 0.08 to 0.12%.
    Fe-B alloys containing Nb, Mo or W in the range of 0.3 to 1.0% are strengthened by a bainitic-type transformation of austenite to ferrite at a faster rate of cooling than air-cooling (about 3°C/sec). Ni-Mn-Nb, Ni-Mn-Mo and Ni-Mn-W alloys are remarkably strengthened by this transformation and exhibit excellent hardenability. Fe-B alloys containing Nb or Mo, etc., e.g. Ni-Mn-Nb and Ni-Mn-Mo-Ti alloys, solution-quenched and tempered, show a high resistance to softening and precipitation strengthening of special boride.
    The mechanical properties of Fe-B alloys containing about 2%Ni, 1%Mn and 0.5%Mn and 0.5%Nb, Mo or W are developed to the grade of 70∼78 kg/mm2 in yield strength, 76∼80 kg/mm2 in tensile strength and moderate reduction of area and elongation. The alloys solution-quenched and tempered at about 500°C have nearly the same strength as that of solution-quenching and improve their ductilities.
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  • Yoshimichi Masuda, Sadao Kikuta, Ryuzo Watanabe
    1968 Volume 32 Issue 6 Pages 543-549
    Published: 1968
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Dendritic iron particles were prepared by electrodeposition into a mercury cathode. Effects of the electrolytic conditions and successive heat treatments on the shapes of the particles were examined by electron-microscopic observations and the measurement of the average magnetic coercive force.
    The formation of dendritic particles in molten mercury may be explained in the same way as the crystal growth in a supersaturated solution.
    The selected area electron diffraction patterns indicated that the direction of the long axis of the dendritic particles coincided with the [111] direction of alpha iron.
    By the proper heat treatment necklace-like particles were obtained, but the orientation of the long axis was unchanged. Further heat treatment changed these particles to be of spheroidal form, and no definite crystal orientation was observed.
    The changes in average magnetic coercive force of the particles with their thermal growth followed a simple isothermal equation.
    In concidering the increased solubility of fine iron particles in mercury, it was concluded that the mechanism of thermal growth of iron particles in mercury might be a solution-diffusion-precipitation process controlled by a simple rate-determining step.
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  • Isao Gokyu, Keijiro Suzuki, Teiji Gotô
    1968 Volume 32 Issue 6 Pages 549-554
    Published: 1968
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Deep drawing of 70/30 and 65/35 brass has been studied by many researchers. But most of these studies have dealt with the ear formation in drawn cups and no attempts have been made to analyse the drawability in terms of the preferred orientation. In brass sheets it is well known that their low-temperature annealing texture is oriented in (225)[73\={4}] and their high-temperature one in (110)[\={1}12]. It has been reported that the (225)[73\={4}] orientation makes little contribution to the drawability in nickel silver sheets and (110)[112] improves the drawability. Also, the grain size has a considerable effect on the drawability.
    In the present study the contribution of the crystallographic texture of α-brass toward the deep drawability was investigated, with the results summarized as follows:
    (1) There is no marked difference in plastic behavior between 70/30 and 65/35 brasses in regard to the drawability.
    (2) Annealing at low temperature (400°C) produces only a (225)[73\={4}] texture in the sheets cold rolled above 90%, while slight preferrence in (110)[\={1}12] developes in the sheets cold rolled below 90%.
    (3) Annealing at high temperature (700°C) tends to produce a (110)[\={1}12] texture, but cold-rolling more than 95% before annealing reduces the component remarkably.
    (4) Grain coarsening of α-brass is accompanied by the development of (110)[\={1}12] texture.
    (5) (110)[\={1}12] orientation improves the drawability of α-brass.
    (6) (225)[73\={4}] component makes little contribution to the drawability.
    (7) Some correlations were recognized between the drawability and the grain size in α-brass, coarse grained sheets being favorable.
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  • Muneaki Shimura, Yoshihiro Shinohara, Yo Takeuchi
    1968 Volume 32 Issue 6 Pages 554-559
    Published: 1968
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    A study by electron-microscopy has been made of the behaviour of deformation and crack initiation in fatigued pure α-titanium. Plastic deformation is intensified at twin interfaces and the twin interfaces become searated: the serrations are accommodated by closely spaced kink boundaries. The pre-existing twins are broken up into smaller irregularly shaped twin fragments. Slip band extrusions occur also, in pure α-titanium. Surface crack topography produced in fatigued pure α-titanium consists of: (1) cracks at the twin interfaces. (2) a large number of cavities spanning the interface between the twin and the parent matrix. (3) cracks at the end of the thin twin. (4) cracks at the intersection of twins. (5) cracks at the grain boundary which is the dead end of the twin. (6) cracks in the twins. (7) formation of the catities in the persistent slip bands and their linkage. (8) cracks at the extrusions and intrusions.
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  • Muneaki Shimura, Yoshihiro Shinohara
    1968 Volume 32 Issue 6 Pages 559-565
    Published: 1968
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    A study by electron fractography has been made of fatigue fracture at low amplitude and room temperature in pure α-titanium. There are three modes of fracture topography that are characteristic of the mechanisms of fracture operating during the propagation of cracks. The first mode topography, corresponding to the initial shear mode crack growth stage, is composed of the facets with deformation marking and the steps which is related to the deformation twinning near the crack tip. The second mode topography, corresponding to the next intermediate growth stage exhibits very little steps, scale-like structure and obscure striations on the wide facets and presents an appearance of cleavage fracture. The third mode topography, corresponding to the final tensile mode crack growth, shows ductile striations normal to the direction of crack growth. The striations are nearly always straight and are hardly influenced by grain-boundaries, sub-boundaries and twin-boundaries.
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  • Ryôhei Tanaka, Misao Sawairi
    1968 Volume 32 Issue 6 Pages 565-571
    Published: 1968
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Influence of nitrogen on microstructures, mechanical properties and acid-resistivities of 18%Cr-10%Mn stainless steels has been studied. The main results obtained are as follows:
    (1) The optimum temperature of solution treatment is found to be 1050°C for 0.14 N (the steel containing 0.14% nitrogen), 1100°C for 0.52 N, 1150°C for 0.77 N and 1200°C for 0.96 N.
    (2) With increasing nitrogen content, the microstructure of the steel solution-quenched changes from ferrite in the low nitrogen steel to ferrite plus austenite in the intermediate nitrogen steel, and finally to complete austenite in the high nitrogen steel containing more than 0.5%N.
    (3) Hardness and strength increase markedly in proportion to the increase in nitrogen content, but the maximum elongation value is obtained at about 0.5%N. Consequently, the high nitrogen steel, such as 0.96%N steel, indicates excellent mechanical properties, that is, tensile strength of 107 kg/mm2, proof stress of 77 kg/mm2, and elongation of about 40%.
    (4) In the steel, containing high concentration of nitrogen more than 0.5%, tempered at about 700°C or more after solution-quenched, the lamella phase Cr2N precipitates by a grain boundary reaction, by which the strength increases a little and the impact value is remarkably reduced.
    (5) Corrosion resistivity of the steel in 1%HCL solution and in 5%H2SO4 solution is far inferior to that of commercial 18Cr-8Ni stainless steel, but shows nearly the same value as commercial 18Cr-8Ni stainless steel in 63%HNO3 solution, and from the above experiment it was found that the corrosion resistivity does not depend upon nitrogen concentration.
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  • Akira Suzuki, Takeshi Suzuki
    1968 Volume 32 Issue 6 Pages 571-576
    Published: 1968
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    “Superimposed structure” is often observed in the macrostructures of castings in addition to primary and secondary dendrite arms.
    On the basis of the platelike morphology of dendrite, a possible mechanism has been proposed by which superimposed structure appears.
    The mechanism predicts the following relationship,
    (This article is not displayable. Please see full text pdf.)
    \ oindentwhere α is the angle between a superimposed structure and a main axis of dendrite, and δ and β the angles between primary and secodary dendrite arms and a polished surface, respectively.
    Examinations of this relationship for several kinds of commpercial alloy castings strongly support the mechanism and it is concluded that the superimposed structure is not a structural constituent but a section on the polished surface of a plate which is formed by dendrite arms.
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  • Yasunobu Tsuji, Masayuki Uda
    1968 Volume 32 Issue 6 Pages 577-580
    Published: 1968
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    An attempt was made to identify an oxide film formed on the surface of 18Cr-8Ni steel, heated at 500°, 800° and 1050°C in air for less than a few minutes. The structures of the oxide film were determined with the aid of an electron microscope equipped with an X-ray microanalyzer, which enables us to obtain electron micrographs, diffraction patterns and characteristic X-ray spectra from the same selected area of the film. The oxide film was composed of three kinds of common oxides through all the experimental conditions; namely, (1) oxide with a corundum structure detected from the area of a continuous thin film, which is identified to be Cr2O3, (2) oxide with a spinel structure corresponding to aggregates of fine particles, Fe3O4 and (3) oxide of electron opaque clusters in small quantities, either MnO or Mn3O4. From all the oxide films concerned, no spectrum of Ni could be detected. The results differ considerably from those obtained after prolonged oxidation; in the latter, several complex oxides with some metallic components of the alloy are found instead of mono-metallic oxides.
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  • Sakae Takeuchi, Kenji Suzuki, Shigeru Tamaki, Takeyoshi Yanao
    1968 Volume 32 Issue 6 Pages 580-584
    Published: 1968
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    (1) To make clear the structure of liquid metals, it is necessary to measure scattering intensities of X-ray or neutron at various temperatures. For liquid Zn there is only a measurement of X-ray scattering intensity at 460°C performed by Gamertsfelder. Measurements of X-ray or neutron scattering in a higher temperature range is required in order to elucidate the structure change of liquid Zn with increasing temperatures.
    (2) In this study measurements of neutron scattering intensities of liquid Zn at 550°, 650° and 800°C were performed and the temperature dependence of the correlation function a(K) in liquid state of Zn was obtained.
    (3) The a(K) obtained at 550°C was very similar to that of Gamertsfelder’s result at 460°C and a sub-peak in the range of small K, which was found in the measurement by Gamertsfelder at 460°C, was also observed at 550°C, but the height of the sub-peak decreased with increasing temperature and disappeared at high temperatures of 650° and 800°C.
    (4) Temperature dependence of electrical resistivity of liquid Zn was calculated using the a(K) curves at 550°, 650° and 800°C and the pseudpotential V(K) of Zn by Animalu and Heine. The results obtained showed that the resistivity decreased with increasing temperature in agreement with the experimental results on resistivity.
    (5) From the above calculation it becomes clear that the negative temperature coefficient of resistivity is mainly based on the temperature dependence of a(K) curves in the range of about K≈0.5×2kf and cannot be explained by the concept of Bradley and et al., that the temperature dependence of resistivity originates from the broadening of the main peak of a(K) with increase in temperature.
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  • Kazuyoshi Shimakage, Katsuji Sakata, Hiromichi Yamao, Susumu Morioka
    1968 Volume 32 Issue 6 Pages 584-589
    Published: 1968
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Some experiments on the ammonia pressure leaching of nickelferrite have been performed to determine the relation between the reducing power of various reducing gases and the extraction percentage in subsequent leaching of nickel.
    H2, H2-H2O, CO and CO-CO2 gases were used as the reducing gas, and ammonia solution containing ammonium sulphate, as the leaching solution for nickel reduced.
    The results obtained were as follows:
    (1) Nickelferrite did not dissolve in ammonia solution under the condition of pressure leaching.
    (2) Reducing power of the gases used was in the order of H2>CO>CO-CO2(2:1)>H2-H2O(3:7)>CO-CO2(1:1)>CO-CO2(1:2) at the rate beyond the critical flow rate.
    (3) The use of ammonium sulphate is required for efficient extraction of nickel by way of preventing hydrolysis, and it has the additional advantage that the leach solution can be efficiently kept without iron ion.
    (4) Adequate and satisfactory reduction previous to leaching was attained by CO-CO2 gas, maintaining 100% extraction of nickel at 50% reduction of nickelferrite as expected theoretically.
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  • Masataka Sugiyama, Tatsuichi Fukusako, Akira Sato
    1968 Volume 32 Issue 6 Pages 590-594
    Published: 1968
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Regarding the prosess of direct-rolling of molten metals for the continuous production of finished products directly from molten metals as an extended prosess of the continuous casting method, manufacturing conditions of half-made products by this process have been studied. For this purpose, we manufactured a trial machine for our laboratory, based on that designed by Sir Henry Bessemer. In this paper the details of the direct-rolling apparatus and results of the preliminary experiment using commercial pure Al are reported. The results of investigations on the possibility of the direct-rolling and properties of direct-rolled plates are as follows: (1) It is quite possible to produce half-made products by the direct-rolling apparatus equipped with twin-rolls as in Bessemer’s. (2) In case of direct-rolling of molten metals by the apparatus, there is an optimum size for the exit of the feeder of molten metals. When the space between the main rolls for chilling, solidifying and rolling is 15 mm, it is desirable that the optimum size for the exit of the feeder be 100 mm×32∼35 mm. (3) The direct-rolling apparatus can be used for direct-rolling in cases that the peripheral speed of pintch-rolls is as same as that of the main rolls, or somewhat faster. (4) The direct-rolling apparatus can roll metals immediately after being solidified at a lower direct-rolling speed.
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  • Moritaka Syozi
    1968 Volume 32 Issue 6 Pages 595
    Published: 1968
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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