Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals and Materials
Online ISSN : 1880-6880
Print ISSN : 0021-4876
ISSN-L : 0021-4876
Volume 25 , Issue 3
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • Masataka Sugiyama, Hisashi Suzuki
    1961 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 167-170
    Published: 1961
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The results of our study on the heat treatment of TiC-50Ni·Cr·Co. (Ni/Cr/Co=3/1/1) cermets were described in the preceding report. Thereafter, experiments on TiC-50Ni·Cr·Co·Mo cermets containing 0.5 and 5.0 wt%Mo as a substitute for Co were continued. Specimens were vacuum-sintered at 1280°C for 1 hr and heat-treated in vacuum at 950° and 1150°C for up to 25 hrs, and at 1220∼1260°C for up to 5 hrs or quenched from 950∼1280°C. The changes of room-temperature properties of the alloys such as transverse-rupture strength, hardness, density, curie temperature and microstructure were observed as functions of heat treatment. It was noticed that the alloy containing 5.0%Mo, after prolonged heating, showed stabler strength and decrease of the hardness leading improved ductility, in connection with better dispersion of carbide grains and with the non-precipitation of chrome carbides, but these findings were in opposition to the results obtained in low Mo alloy.
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  • Toshio Amitani
    1961 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 170-173
    Published: 1961
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of small additional elemets on the recrystallized grain size and the anisotropy of annealed aluminium sheets. In annealing alminium sheets, the addition of an element that inhibits the growth of the recrystallized grain has the effect of retaining the anisotropic properties of rolled sheet even after the recrystallization. The effect is the most prominent upon addition of iron and titanium, and less marked upon addition of beryllium, nickel and zirconium.
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  • Hideji Hotta
    1961 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 174-177
    Published: 1961
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    In this study, the author formulated the isothermal transformation curve of Ni-Cr structural steel by the microvickers and microstructure, and examined the relation between the heat-treatment of austempering and hardness value, tortional strength, Charpy impact value and microstructure test at room and high temperatures.
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  • Hidehiro Goto, Yachiyo Kakita, Michiko Namiki
    1961 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 178-181
    Published: 1961
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Studies on photometric determination of microamounts of Co in iron and steel were carried out by extracting the thiocyanate complex with methyl isobutyl ketone. After the separation of most of the ferric ions in hydrochloric acid solution by methyl isobutyl ketone extraction the ferric ion remaining in a queous phase were reduced to ferrous ions with SnCl2, and then the thiocyanate complex of Co was extracted with methyl isobutyl ketone and determined photometrically. This method was modified so as to be applicable to stainless steel samples also. About 0.001% of Co contained in iron and steel can be easily determined by the proposed method.
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  • Hidehiro Goto, Yachiyo Kakita, Michiko Namiki
    1961 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 181-184
    Published: 1961
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Studies were made on the determination of microamounts of Co and Fe in metallic nickel. After extracting the thiocyanate complexes of Co and Fe in the presence of Ni, simultaneous determination of Co and Fe were made photometrically and satisfactory results were obtained. However, the above mentioned simple method was not suitable for the determination of trace amounts of Co and an improved method was devised to determine about 0.001% of Co contained in metallic nickel.
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  • Hidehiro Gotô, Yachiyo Kakita
    1961 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 184-188
    Published: 1961
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Studies were carried out on the photometric determination of microamount of W in iron and steel. W and Mo were separated from the main component of Fe and other elements by α-benzoinoxime-chloroform extraction. When larger amount of Mo was present than that of W in the sample, most of Mo in HCl solution was separated from W by methyl isobutyl ketone extraction. After reducing W6+ to pentavalent W with SnCl2 in HCl solution, thiocyanate complex of W was formed by addition of NH4SCN. The complex was extracted with methyl isobutyl ketone and the amount of W was determined by measuring its light absorbancy. When V was not contained in the sample, W was separated from Fe and other elements by precipitating their hydroxides with NaOH in the place of α-benzoinoxime-chloroform extraction method.
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  • Y\={u}ki Shirakawa, Takeshi Miyazaki
    1961 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 188-191
    Published: 1961
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper concerns the cathode materials which are required to conserve great strength even at high temperatures. Measurements were taken of the tensile strength and the specific electric resistance of Ni alloy wires, 0.06 mm in diameter, containing not more than 3.5%Al and not more than 4.9%W at 800°C in vacuum. In the meantime, we devised a high-temperature tensile-strength testing machine for fine wires. The results of our tests and measurements were as follows: The tensile strength of the alloys at 800°C increased according to an increase in the content of their alloying elements, and this phenomenon was particularly noticeable in the case of an increase in Al content, while the addition of Co had practically no effect on the increase of the tensile strength of the alloys. The tensile strength dwindled gradually as temperature went up. The specific electric resistance of the annealed alloys at room temperature increased with an increase in the contents of Al and W. To give an example, the tensile strength at 800°C and the specific electric resistance at room temperature of a 3.5%Al-4.9%W-Ni alloy stood at 25 kg/mm2 and 35 μΩ/cm, respectively.
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  • Yasuo Kimura
    1961 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 191-194
    Published: 1961
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The magnetic properties of the completely heat-treated Alnico-5 magnet were not changed by heating at 300∼500°C. During heating at 300∼400°C in an incompletely aged Alnico-5 magnet, the coercive force was decreased about 10%, but the residual induction increased about 3%. These changes were also observed in the other Alnicos. It is assumed that the decrease of coercive force during heat exposure to temperatures below 450°C is due to the transformation of slightly retained γ-phase to α-phase. The increase of coercive force is due to the decomposition of α-phase to α12 phases.
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  • Tatsuo Maekawa, Michio Mizuta, Katsumi Ishihara
    1961 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 195-197
    Published: 1961
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The corrosion of AISI type 304 (or 304L) stainless steel in high-purity water at 300°C, 85 kg/cm2 was investigated as a function of chemical composition, heat treatment and surface preparation. The results were compared with the corrosion in boiling 40% and 65% nitric acid, and expressed as follows: (1) The carbon content (in the range of 0.01 to 0.07) and heat treetment (solutionized or sensitized) do not seem to affect the corrosion resistance of type-304 (or 304L) stainless steel in high temperature water appreciably. (2) A significant effect of surface finish on the extent of corrosion in high temperature water was found; pickled specimens showed better corrosion resistance than abraded ones. (3). The specimens of higher corrosion rate in boiling 40% nitric acid showed higher corrosion rate in high temperature water.
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  • Hiromu Tanimura, Kiichi Taniguchi, Yuji Nagamatsu
    1961 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 198-201
    Published: 1961
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Various cast irons, having different types of graphite such as A.D.E etc (ASTM-chart), were prepared. The toughness of cast iron was measured by the three different methods: (1) Tensile test, where the elongation is measured precisely by Marten’s extensiometer. The toughness is expressed by the resilience which is calculated from the area covered by stress-strain curve. (2) Torsion test. The resilience is calculated from the curve of twisting morment and twisting angle. (3) Charpy impact test. The following results were obtained. (1) As to the toughness of cast iron, the three methods have shown good agreement. (2) Torsion test is very practical, as it can be carried more easily than the precise tensile test.
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  • Masazô Okamoto, Ryôhei Tanaka, Nobukazu Suzuki
    1961 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 201-205
    Published: 1961
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Phase changes during austempering of Si-Cr-Mn steels at 300° or 400° have been studied by means of dilatometric, microscopic and X-ray diffraction methods. The austempering was found to proceed in the following three stages. 1st stage: Supercooled austenite begins to transform into ferrite supersaturated with carbon, causing the enrichment of the rejected carbon atoms in the remaining austenite. 2nd stage: Carbide precipitates out within the ferrite and begins to coagulate. 3rd stage: The remaining austenite rich in carbon begins to transform into an aggregate of ferrite and carbide. However, in the austempering of about one hour, the isothermal transformation is interrupted prior to its completion. Due to the stoppage of the transformation in the process of its progression, the remaining austenite containing 1.0∼1.2%C and of up to 5∼20% in the amount is retained without transforming into other structural constituents. In such austempering, silicon in steels delays the progression of the transformation and results in retaining more amount of austenite in the austempered product.
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  • Hideo Tajiri, Masaharu Matsubara, Koshi Katayama, Tadao Nakada
    1961 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 205-209
    Published: 1961
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this report, the changes of structure in α+β brass by hot-working temperature and working reduction were investigated using plate specimens of 58.5%Cu, 59.0%Cu, 60.0%Cu, 60.5%Cu, 61.0%Cu, 61.5%Cu and 61.9%Cu brass, of the size of 30 mm×90 mm×180 mm, and the structure after forging for various holding times using specimens of the same contents 1 cm3 in size. The results obtained were as follows: (1) There was a suitable temperature zone for producing homogenous structure in α+β brass. (2) There was a suitable holding time correlated with the hot-working temperature and the size of the specimen. (3) Within temperature zone of adapted for producing homogenous structure, it grew finer in the case of larger working reduction at the beginning.
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  • Hajime Kotô, Haruo Watanabe, Michitomo Katô
    1961 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 210-212
    Published: 1961
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In some cold-worked metals and alloys, extraordinary hardening occurs by annealing at lower temperature than their recrystallization temperature. The hardening phenomena of purest Ni, Al, Cu, Ag and Fe have been reported, but their mechanism has not been studied sufficiently. In the experiment of this report, anomalous phenomena of isothermal change in the region from 10 to 400°C were observed by electric resistivity method in vacuum. The experimental results may be summarized as follows: (1) In the specific resistance-time curve, OFHC copper showed anomalous changes of electric resistance at each annealing temperature, and the shape of curve of the change became sharp in proportion as the reduction was increased. (2) The extinction time of peak of this change became longer in proportion as the reduction was heightened. (3) There was no linear relation among the reciprocal of absolute temperature of annealing, extinction time of peak, and the beginning time of the 1st and 2nd peaks.
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  • Iwao Hagiwara, Shogo Kanazawa
    1961 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 213-216
    Published: 1961
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The effect of applied stress upon the martensite transformation curve has been investigated in a steel containing 1%C and 5%Ni. When stresses are applied during transformation, a tensile stress raises Ms temperature as is well known, but it opposes the transformation as a whole; on the contrary, a compressive stress promotes the transformation without remarkable effect on Ms. The similar directional stress effect is observed when stresses are applied at the temperature range entirely above Ms. These results seems to indicate that the coherent embryo of martensite is formed due to Bain’s deformation for transformation, preferentialy in regions of the lattice subjected to uniaxial compressive stress, as in the neighbourhood of dislocation.
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  • Tatsuo Fujiwara, Tetsuo Kato
    1961 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 216-220
    Published: 1961
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The influence of aging treatment on the magneto-striction in Alnico 5 was studied by the use of a strain-gauge. The aging at about 600° which brings out the best magnetic property causes a minimum value in saturation magneto-striction. It is considered from the results of this study and of the previous study on the temperature dependence of the electrical resistance that in Alnico 5, a stable condition is formed by aging at about 600°. The precipitation arises by aging above about 650°. The aging at 725° causes a maximum value in saturation magneto-striction. And a slight transformation is suggested from the behavior of the starting point in magnetostriction curve and from the domain pattern. It is inferred that the phenomena may mean a start to the cohesion of precipitation.
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  • Taichi Kamijo, Kazuma Yamamoto
    1961 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 220-224
    Published: 1961
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Hot-rolled tough pitch copper specimens were cross-rolled to 10 through 30 pct at 45° to the primary rolling direction after developing (123)[1\={2}1] rolling texture. The effect of cross rolling on the formation of cube texture was investigated by examining the orientation relationship between the rolling texture and the annealing texture. Recrystallization nucleuses appeared in a early stage of recrystallization with large amount of retained deformed matrix, representing sharp cube orientation in the case of a 95 pct, straight-rolled specimen. As the reduction of cross rolling was increased, recrystallization nucleuses occurred at higher temperature and their orientation showed-greater spread from the cube orientation. It is difficult to account for these behaviors on the basis of the oriented-growth theory, but they agree precisely with the principle of the oriented-nucleation theory.
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  • Mikio Yamamoto, Satoshi Taniguchi
    1961 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 225-229
    Published: 1961
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Ferromagnetic domain patterns have been observed, using the powder pattern technique, with single crystals of Ni-Co alloys containing 4, 6, 12, 18, 20, and 68%Co. Annealed 4∼20%Co-Ni single crystals revealed maze patterns after fairly severe electrolytic polish and proper domain patterns only after quitely severe electrolytic polish. Analysis of the observed domain patterns indicates that the first magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant, K1, is positive for 4∼18%Co, while it is negative for 20%Co. A domain pattern observed an a locally strained (100) surface of a 12%Co-Ni single crystal, which consists of 180° domain walls radiating from the loaded point, shows that the internal stress in the surface layer takes a distribution concentric around the loaded point. 68%Co-Ni single crystals revealed domain patterns characteristic to face-centered cubic crystals with K1<0.
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  • Mikio Yamamoto, Satoshi Taniguchi
    1961 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 229-233
    Published: 1961
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Ferromagnetic domain patterns were observed, using the powder pattern technique, with single crystals of Ni-Co alloys containing 69 and 70%Co as well as with cobalt ingots as solidified slowly and then variously heat-treated. In 69%Co-Ni single crystals, ε (hexagonal close-packed) phase crystals were seen as layers parallel to {111} planes, indicating that the boundary of the γ (fece-centered cubic) phase is located at 68%Co. On the {110} surface of 69%Co-Ni single crystals, traces of ε phase crystals were seen as bands parallel to two ⟨112⟩ and one ⟨110⟩ directions. The behavior of 180°C domain walls in the matrix γ phase crystals when they cross the ε-phase crystal bands show that the direction of easy magnetization in ε phase nickel-cobalt alloys is [0001] direction, irrespective of the composition, just as in cobalt. Cobalt specimens, which were solildfied slowly from the melt and then cooled very sowly through the γ→ε transformation temperature, are seen to be divided finely by numerous ε-phase crystal bands, among which there exist γ-phase cryistal regions of parallelogram and triangular shapes. A similar structure is observed in cobalt as quenched in hot water after slow solidification, although the proportion of γ-phase in quenched specimens is larger than in slowly cooled specimens.
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