Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals and Materials
Online ISSN : 1880-6880
Print ISSN : 0021-4876
ISSN-L : 0021-4876
Volume 35 , Issue 12
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Toshio Shimoo, Hiroshi Kimura, Masao Kawai
    1971 Volume 35 Issue 12 Pages 1103-1108
    Published: 1971
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A study was made on the solubilities of nitrogen in molten ternary slags of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 in graphite crucibles. At higher temperatures, the following reaction takes place:
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    However, at lower temperatures the change of the composition due to the formation of SiO is negligibly small. The forms of nitrogen dissolved in molten CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 slag are supposed to be CN and N3−. As a general rule, the solubility of nitrogen in molten slag decreases with increasing silica content, and increases with increasing lime content. The solubility can be qualitatively explained by the activity of free oxygen anion in molten slag.
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  • Yoshiki Oshida, Tadayuki Nakayama
    1971 Volume 35 Issue 12 Pages 1108-1114
    Published: 1971
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The effects of plastic deformation and polishing conditions on the structures and chemical compositions of oxide films produced on the surfaces of 18Cr, 18-18, 18-8 stainless steels in 300°C water for 1 hr were investigated through the electron microscope, transmission electron diffraction and the X-ray microanalyzer.
    The main results obtained are as follows:
    (1) The spinel type oxide consisted of Fe and Cr was formed on the tension and compression parts in the U-bend zone of mechanically and chemically polished 18-8 stainless steel, while on the non-stressed zone the corundum type oxide having Fe and Cr was produced. This spinel type oxide was identical to (Fe,Cr)3O4 and/or FeCr2O4 alone or its coexistence with Fe3O4.
    (2) For 18Cr and 18-18 stainless steels the same tendency of the wet oxide films to be the spinel type oxides due to the plastic deformation as in the case of 18-8 stainless steel was observed. However, the spinel type oxide formed on 18-18 stainless steel consisted of Ni besides Fe and Cr.
    (3) No effects of polishing conditions were observed on the structures and chemical compositions of wet oxide films formed on the U-bend stressed zone for all the stainless steels investigated.
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  • Takao Kusakabe, Shosuke Imoto
    1971 Volume 35 Issue 12 Pages 1115-1120
    Published: 1971
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Th3N4 and Th2N2O were thermally decomposed in the temperature range of 1200° to 1350°C in vacuum. In both cases, the lattice parameter of ThN produced by the decomposition showed 5.156∼5.161 Å in good agreement with those previously reported, when the decomposition was nearly completed. But, when the product contained a large amount of the undecomposed Th3N4 or Th2N2O phase, a value as high as 5.180 Å was observed.
    The equilibrium nitrogen pressures for the reactions Th3N4\ ightleftharpoonsThN and Th2N2O\ ightleftharpoonsThN+ThO2 were determined by heating the specimen in a disk form on a W strip heater up to 1985°C under the predetermined N2 pressures and by measuring the decomposition temperature from the change of the specific emissivity at the point.
    The results are
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    which give the enthalpy and the entropy of formation of ThN and Th2N2O at 298°K as follows:
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  • Takaaki Ôshita, Hideo Takei
    1971 Volume 35 Issue 12 Pages 1120-1126
    Published: 1971
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The effects of extrusion speed and temperature on the extrusion stress and the mechanical properties of the superplastic eutectoid Zn-Al alloy extruded under various conditions were investigated, and then compared with those of the annealed non-superplastic alloy of the same composition. The results obtained are as follows:
    (1) Eutectoid Zn-Al alloy which was cast and then furnace cooled after heating at 380°C for 1 hr (named the annealed material) does not show superplasticity. But the alloy, water quenched from 380°C followed by tempering at 180°∼220°C, shows superplasticity, and the maximum value of strain-rate sensitivity exponent m was 0.55. The alloy was named the tempered material.
    (2) Extrusion stress decreases with increase in extrusion temperature, and the value of the extrusion stress of the tempered material becomes minimum at eutectoid temperature 275°C. It then increases a little at 300°C.
    (3) If the conditions of extrusion are indentical, the extrusion stress of the tempered material is always smaller than that of the annealed material. When extrusion temperature was at 250°C, the extrusion stress of the former was 25% of that of the latter.
    (4) The tensile strength and the hardness of the extruded tempered material becomes larger as the extrusion speed increases and the temperature rises, but the reduction in area shows larger value as the extrusion speed increases and the temperature drops. A slight drop of tensile strength is found at eutectoid temperature 275°C.
    (5) The tensile strength and the hardness of the extruded tempered material are smaller than those of the extruded annealed material, but the tensile strength and the hardness of the former which was followed by heat treatment (furnace cooled from 380°C) are remarkably improved and become superior to those of the latter.
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  • Toshio Kainuma, Ryoji Watanabe
    1971 Volume 35 Issue 12 Pages 1126-1133
    Published: 1971
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The changes in microstructure during the initial stages of aging in Cu-1.8 wt%Be and Ni-2.5 wt%Be alloys were systematically examined by means of electron transmission microscopy and electron diffraction technique.
    It was found that during the formation and growth of G.P.zones in these two alloys there were some significant changes in details of the diffraction patterns obtained. In the earliest stage of the G.P.zone formation, the short streaks were observed in a complex manner at each of the normal diffraction spots. In the subsequent stage, the long streaks appeared along ⟨100⟩ directions, which were typical of a plate-like G.P.zone. Furthermore, the extra spots were observed at the positions of ordering reflections. In the later stage, the intensity maxima were observed on the ⟨100⟩ long streaks.
    The short streaks were thought to arise from the elastic strain effects induced by the formation of the G.P.zones on {100} planes. The complex morphology of the short streaks observed was found to be given by the geometrical relation between the short streaks of the reciprocal lattice point and Ewald’s sphere of reflection.
    It was also found that the appearance of the extra spots was not due to an ordered structure but due to the intersection of the long ⟨100⟩ streaks with the reflecting sphere.
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  • Matsujiro Hamasumi, Shinzo Aoki
    1971 Volume 35 Issue 12 Pages 1134-1137
    Published: 1971
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present work was undertaken to find out the true bonding strength of copper plating on iron, using a strike solution and a plating solution. To obtain a thick plating of 1 mm thickness, a low current density of 0.7 A/dm2 and a long plating time of 70∼80 hr were adopted. After the deposition of copper, we obtained a copper disc of 1 mm thickness with a stem of iron rod. The groin part was turned on a lathe to get a smooth joint. Then it was set into a special chuck and drawn for the tensile test.
    The bonding strength of copper plating on iron rod varied naturally according to the surface finish of iron viz. 13.5 kg/mm2 for 120 mesh emery paper finish, 19.0 kg/mm2 for 280 mesh emery paper finish and 26 kg/mm2 for buff finish. For the purpose of referrence the strength of commercial electrolytic copper having 11 mm thickness was measured in longitudinal, transverse and thickness directions. It is shown that the tensile strength is 25 kg/mm2 irrespective of the applied directions.
    This fact means that the bonding strength of copper plating on iron is nothing but the plated copper itself and the true bonding strength between copper and iron was inmeasurable in the present work.
    The bonding strength of copper plating on ferritic ductile iron was also investigated. Six rods of 4 mm diameter of ductile iron were similarly plated with copper. The mean bonding strength was 23 kg/mm2, and the fracture showed copper red on the ferritic groundmass and grey on the nodular graphite. Using the Halbert Counter, linear analyses were made on 10 segments of straight lines and the bonding strength was calculated to be 23 kg/mm2, assuming the bonding strength of copper plating on ferrite to be 26 kg/mm2 and that of graphite to be 2 kg/mm2.
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  • Chikao Uemura, Makoto Sugihara, Yoshito Yamada
    1971 Volume 35 Issue 12 Pages 1137-1143
    Published: 1971
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is to be noted, that Fe-Mn alloys which contain low-priced elements have marked α-γ transformations. In this report Fe-(0∼6%)Mn alloys were investigated as one of the square hysteresis loop magnetic materials by annealing after cold rolling.
    The properties obtained were as follows; the residual induction Br=14450 G, coercive force IHC=0.65 Oe and squareness ratio=91%, or Br=15900 G, IHC=1.30 Oe and squareness ratio=92.5%.
    When Fe-(3∼6%)Mn alloys were annealed at temperature above 500°C, α-γ transformations were observed; the coercive force increased, while the residual induction and squareness ratio decreased with the precipitation of the γ phase. The effects of element additions on magnetic properties of Fe-3%Mn alloy were also studied.
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  • Hakaru Masumoto, Shôhachi Sawaya, Michio Kikuchi
    1971 Volume 35 Issue 12 Pages 1143-1149
    Published: 1971
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Measurements of Young’s modulus and thermal expansion at −150°∼400°C, and of rigidity modulus and hardness at room temperature have been carried out with Mn-Ni alloys subject to various heat-treatments and cold-works. It has been found that Mn-10.15∼35.30%Ni alloys slow-cooled after heating at 950°C for 1 hr had clear minimum or maximum in Young’s modulus-temperature curves, and there anomalies correspond to antiferromagnetic Néel points or fcc\ ightleftarrowsfct martensitic transformation. The values of Young’s modulus at room temperature did not show a great difference among the annealed state, the cold-worked state, the reheated state after cold-working, the water-quenched state and the reheated state after water-quenching, but the difference being large in the γ phase and the mixture phase on the Mn side. Besides, a large minimum value of Young’s modulus was recognized near 18.5% of nickel contents. The temperature coefficient of Young’s modulus at room temperature was affected largely by heat-treatment, cold-working and alloy composition, and the temperature coefficient vs. composition curves exhibit a large maxima and minima in positive and negative signs. The highest positive temperature coefficient of Young’s modulus in the annealed state is +119.50×10−5 for the alloy containing 20.30%Ni, thus showing the Elinvar property. Further, the variation in rigidity modulus and its temperature coefficient by heat treatment, cold-working and alloy composition bears a close resemblance to that in Young’s modulus and its temperature coefficient. The hardness in the annealed state, the water-quenched state and the reheated state after water-quenching was generally lower than that in the cold-worked state and reheated state after cold-working.
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  • Hakaru Masumoto, Shôhachi Sawaya, Michio Kikuchi
    1971 Volume 35 Issue 12 Pages 1150-1155
    Published: 1971
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Measurements of Young’s modulus at −150°∼400°C and of thermal expansion, rigidity modulus and hardness at room temperature have been carried out with Mn-Cu-Cr alloys subjected to a variety of heat treatment and cold-working. It was found that Mn-Cu-Cr alloys containing about 5.0∼56.0%Cu and 0.1∼24.0%Cr slow-cooled after heating for 1 hr at 950°C showed a minimum in Young’s modulus-temperature curves and its anomaly may be a antiferromagnetic Néel points. The values of Young’s modulus at room temperature in the annealed state were higher than those in the cold-worked or water-quenched state, the difference becoming remarkably large with increasing manganese or chromium content. The temperature coefficient of Young’s modulus showed a wide variation by annealing, water-quenching, cold-working and reheating after water-quenching or cold-working, and also with alloy composition. It is also to be noted that the temperature coefficients of Young’s modulus as a function of composition exhibited a large maximum and minimum in positive and negative signs, thus showing the Elinvar property. The variation in rigidity modulus and its temperature coefficient by heat treatment, cold-working and composition showed a close resemblance to that in Young’s modulus and its temperature coefficient. The hardness in the annealed, cold-worked and water-quenched states were generally lower than that in the reheated state after cold-working or water-quenching. Further the oxidation and corrosion resistance properties of Mn-Cu-Cr alloys were superior to binary alloys in Mn-Cu and Mn-Ni.
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  • Hakaru Masumoto, Shôhachi Sawaya, Michio Kikuchi
    1971 Volume 35 Issue 12 Pages 1155-1161
    Published: 1971
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Measurements of Young’s modulus at −150°∼400°C and of the thermal expansion, rigidity modulus and hardness at room temperature have been carried out with Mn-Cu-Ni alloys subjected to a variety of heat treatment and cold working. Mn-Cu-Ni alloys containing 5.06∼55.16%Cu and 4.08∼25.35%Ni slow-cooled after heating for 1 hr at 950°C showed a minimum in Young’s modulus vs.temperature curves and its minimum may be a antiferromagnetic Néel points. The values of Young’s modulus at room temperature in the annealed state were higher than those in the cold-worked or water-quenched states, the difference becoming remarkably large with increasing manganese or nickel content. The temperature coefficient of Young’s modulus showed a wide variation by annealing, water-quenching, cold-working and reheating after water-quenching or cold-working, and also with alloy composition. It is also to be noted that the temperature coefficients of Young’s modulus as a function of composition exhibited a large maximum and minimum in positive or negative signs, thus showing the Elinvar property. The variation in rigidity modulus and its temperature coefficient by heat treatment, cold-working and composition showed a close resemblance to that in Young’s modulus and its temperature coefficient. The hardness in the annealed, cold-worked and water-quenched states were generally lower than that in reheated state after cold-working or water-quenching. Further the oxidation and corrosion resistance properties of Mn-Cu-Ni alloys were superior to those Mn-Cu and Mn-Ni binary alloys.
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  • Hiroshi Tanaka, Akio Yamaguchi, Joichiro Moriyama
    1971 Volume 35 Issue 12 Pages 1161-1164
    Published: 1971
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The standard free energies for formation of AlF3, ThF4, UF3, UF4, CrF2, MnF2 and CrF3 were determined by emf measurements. The following fluorine concentration cells were operated at 600°C:
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    From the emf values and ΔfG°(MgF2) obtained from ΔfH° data by calorimetry measurements, the standard free energies of formation of the above fluorides at 600°C were calculated as follows : ΔfG°(AlF3)=−306.0±0.2, ΔfG°(ThF4)=−436.6±0.8, ΔfG°(UF3)=−310.9±0.8, ΔfG°(UF4)=−394.0±1.3, ΔfG°(CrF2)=−156.4±0.3, ΔfG°(MnF2)=−175.0±0.2, ΔfG°(CrF3)=−229.1±1.0. (kcal/mol)
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  • Nobuyuki Morito, Wataru Suëtaka
    1971 Volume 35 Issue 12 Pages 1165-1170
    Published: 1971
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For a better understanding of the corrosion inhibition mechanism, it should be quite profitable to know the structure of the films of adsorbed inhibitor molecules or the surface reaction films on metals. We studied the infrared (4000∼400 cm−1) and the ultraviolet-visible (50000∼12500 cm−1) reflection spectra of the surface films on copper treated with benzotriazole; the most potential inhibitor of copper. The surface film on evaporated copper was formed by immersing for 20 hours in 3%NaCl aqueous solution (pH 3, 25°C) containing 0.02 M benzotriazole (BTA).
    The infrared high sensitivity reflection spectra of the surface films on copper, in which the absorption band due to N-H stretching vibration disappeared and that of N=N stretching vibration shifted to a lower wavenumber, indicate that the film consists of benzotriazole-cuprous salt(BTA-Cu(I)) formed by the substitution of hydrogen atom in the NH group with Cu(I)ion. The relative intensity of the absorption bands of C-H stretching and C-H out of plane deformation vibration shows that C-H stretching vibration, i.e., the plane of BTA-Cu(I) molecule is parallel to the copper surface. Far-infrared reflection spectra (400∼200 cm−1) suggests the presence of N-Cu-N deformation vibration and the surface film BTA-Cu(I) may be a polymer.
    The electronic reflection spectra of the copper surface immersed for 150 sec are in near agreement with the spectra of BTA-Cu(I). The spectra of very thin films (<10 Å) are a little different from that of BTA-Cu(I), but are quite different from that of benzotriazole-cupric salt (BTA-Cu(II)) and BTA. Therefore, the thin surface film seems to be composed of a similar compound to BTA-Cu(I).
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  • Hiroyasu Mitani, Masaru Yokota
    1971 Volume 35 Issue 12 Pages 1171-1177
    Published: 1971
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    In order to eliminate the abnormal expansion of the Cu-Al mixed powder compacts due to the γ2(Cu9Al4) formation at the eutectic temperature of 548°C during the heating process, a study of the sintering behabior of the Cu-γ2 pseudo binary and the Cu-γ2-X (X=Mn, Fe and Ni) ternary mixed powder compacts was carried out in the present study.
    The results obtained were as follows:
    (1) The Cu-γ2 pseudobinary mixed powder compacts with different compacting pressure expanded always at a constant temperature of 500°C, where the amount of the expansion during heating decreased with increasing pressure of compacting.
    (2) The above described expansion was enhanced by the addition of manganese and reduced by the addition of iron. However, it was extremely reduced by the addition of nickel as compared with the latter.
    (3) Judging from the scanning patterns of the characteristic X-ray images for the Cu-γ2-X ternary mixed powder compacts which were heated up to 900°C, the addition of manganese to the Cu-γ2 system enhanced the Kirkendall diffusion, and the addition of iron slightly reduced it. However, the addition of nickel extremely reduced the Kirkendall diffusion, where the nickel atoms difused prefferentially into the γ2 particles.
    These differences of the Kirkendall diffusion corresponded to the amount of the expansion for the ternary mixed powder compacts during the heating process.
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  • Kenjiro Yagi, Keisuke Ikeda, Eihachiro Tanaka
    1971 Volume 35 Issue 12 Pages 1177-1182
    Published: 1971
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is wellknown that the formation of deformation bands exerts an important influence on the development of the ⟨100⟩ fiber texture in drawn or extruded fcc metals. It is considered that slip on different systems caused by a constrained plastic flow under an axially-symmetric deformation results in band formation. However, lattice rotation in the bands during deformation, especially the formation process of the ⟨100⟩ component, has not been analysed in detail. In this work, the formation of deformation bands along flow directions in the plastic zone was studied with extruded rods of aluminium single crystals. The following results were obtained:
    (1) The difference in band appearance, which depends on the initial orientation of the crystal, results from the difference in the distribution of “unit patterns”.
    (2) A unit pattern is composed of two regions. Region A in which the ⟨111⟩ component is dominant located at the center of the unit pattern. In region B on four sides of region A, each ⟨100⟩ component exists on toothed boundaries between two ⟨111⟩ components. In the other regions the ⟨111⟩ component is dominant.
    (3) The area where flow directions in the plastic zone are in the range of ⟨001⟩∼⟨011⟩∼⟨112⟩ on the stereographic triangle becomes the origin of unit pattern. Flow directions ranging from ⟨013⟩ to ⟨112⟩ determine the boundary between A and B.
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  • Osamu Kawano, Kuo-Shung Liu, Yotaro Murakami
    1971 Volume 35 Issue 12 Pages 1182-1188
    Published: 1971
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A Simple qualitative method is described, by which the particle size distribution and shape distribution of G.P.zones in aluminium alloys can be determined by one profile factor, VS, led from the behaviour of the tail part on the profile of small angle X-ray scattering curves. These two distributions can not be separated generally and therefore in this research the Al-Ag alloys are selected for the determination of size distribution, in which the shape of G.P.zones is known to be always spherical. The profile factor VS for the size distribution and the size distribution obtained from the log normal distribution method are compared in the aged Al-Ag alloys. It is shown that these two size distributions are in qualitatively good agreement. It is also to be noted that the experimentally determined size distribution by transmission electron microscopy is in approximate agreement with the log normal distribution.
    In Al-1.00 at% and 2.11 at%Ag alloys aged at 135°C, the profile factor VS as a function of zone radius shows one peak. This means that the size distribution becomes narrower at first and again wider at the later stage. By the log normal distribution method the latter process is also observed. In this process the integrated intensity Q0 is found to be constant and therefore the growth mechanism is thought to be due to Ostwald ripening. But the behaviour of G.P.zone size distribution in these Al-Ag alloys is quite different from the results in the Al-Zn alloys obtained by R.W.Gould. The growth mechanism of G.P.zones should be investigated further from the points of view of particle size distribution. In Al-1.00 at%Ag alloys it is also found that RG4 (RG: Guinier radius) is proportional to ageing time.
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  • Akira Adachi, Zen-ichiro Morita, Yoshifumi Kita, Akio Kasama, Shigeki ...
    1971 Volume 35 Issue 12 Pages 1188-1194
    Published: 1971
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The maximum bubble pressure method was used for the measurement of the surface tension of liquid metals and alloys at high temperature. Fundamental problems of the measurement were discussed through the preliminary experiment prior to the measurement of surface tension of liquid Pb-Sn alloys. It is shown that the values of surface tension at Sn-26.1 at%Pb indicate a peculiar behavior in comparison with those of other compositions. This phenomenon may be attributed to the formation of cluster in the liquid.
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