Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals and Materials
Online ISSN : 1880-6880
Print ISSN : 0021-4876
ISSN-L : 0021-4876
Volume 19 , Issue 12
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • Tokushichi Mishima, Kyôji Tachikawa
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 12 Pages 685-689
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The properties of Co-Fe-V permanent magnet alloys which can be cold-worked severely have been investigated. When they are cold-worked, the saturation induction value increases and a magnetic anisotropy appears so that the value of energy product increases considerably (See Figs. 3 and 4 and Table 1). During aging after cold-working, the saturation induction value and the hardness increase according to a certain change in α-phase, and at somewhat higher temperatures the coercive force increases owing to the dispersion of γ-phase (See Figs. 5 and 7). The best magnetic properties, Br=10000 gauss, Hc=420 Oe, (BH)max=2.8×106, have been obtained in the composition of Co=52.5%, Fe=34%, V=13.5% by severe cold-working and aging at 600°.
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  • Shiro Terai
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 12 Pages 689-693
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    On this second report, the mechanism of grain refinement of commercially pure Al and some Al binary alloys was investigated. The results obtained were as follows: (1) Though the grain size of cast super-pure Al (99.99% purity) is not related to the melting and casting conditions, that of commercially pure Al (99.5% purity) is closely related to these conditions, and especially when cast below 700°, very fine grains were obtained. This phenomenon was caused by the small quantity of Ti contained as impurity in 99.5% pure Al. (2) In the case of addition of Cu, Mg, Zn to super-pure Al, the grain size was not refined so markedly as by addition of these elements to 99.5% Al, but in the case of addition of Mn or Cr to the Al, the grain size was not affected by the purity of Al, and was not refined so markedly as by addition of Cu, Mg, Zn to the 99.5% Al. (3) Addition of Ti to lower purity Al or some binary Al alloys refined the grain size markedly. Even in Al-Mn or Al-Cr alloy, if Ti was added in a quantity over 0.15%, the grain size in these alloys was refined as well as in Al-Cu, Al-Mg, Al-Zn Alloys. (4) The grain size of Al and its alloys was coarsened by casting from higher temperature, if they contained Ti, but the grain size was not affected by casting temperature, if they contained both Ti and B. The phenomenon may be explained by the fact that the decomposition temperature of TiB2 in molten Al is higher than that of TiC in molten Al.
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  • Shigeru Yokosuka
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 12 Pages 693-696
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    A method colorimetric determination of a small amount of lead in metallic copper is studied by means of dithizone-CCl4, which is carried out when lead coexists with a large amount of copper, by eliminating its interference by addition of sodium sulfite. Bismuth, which affects the result, is removed by extraction with dithizone-CCl4 at pH 3.3∼3.5, and the interference of tin is masked by adding sodium sulfite. As little as 0.0001% of lead in copper is can be determined by this direct extraction method within about forty minutes.
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  • Yoshichika Oto, Takanobu Hamaguchi, Chujo Matsumoto, Taira Yoshinaka, ...
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 12 Pages 696-700
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The Osaka Industrial Research Institute has been equipped with an Industrial Research Quantometer manufactured by the Applied Research Laboratories, U.S.A. for the purpose of the quicker disposal of metal analysis requested by various organizations. The apparatus was applied at first to the analysis of irons and steels. In quantitative analysis of Cu, Si, Mn, Cr, Ni, Mo V in low alloy steels, its accuracy and reproducibility in rapid and actual applications have been thoroughly studied from various aspects and found to be satisfactory. The standard samples for this purpose were supplied by the standards of N.B.S. (U.S.A.) and Bureau of Analyzed Samples Ltd. (England). The results were that the apparatus standardized sufficiently has shown the standard deviation of 1 to 3% in case of analysing various elements in iron and steels simultaneously. In addition, as it was easy to check the working curve, any errors could be adequately controlled and in these points, this apparatus can be said to have higher merits as compared with the conventional photographic method.
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  • Yoshichika Oto, Takanobu Hamaguchi, Chujo Matsumoto, Taira Yoshinaka, ...
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 12 Pages 700-703
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    In making quantitative analysis of Cu, Si, Mn, Cr, Ni in cast iron, of Cu, Si, Mn, Cr, Ni, Mo in stainless steel and of Cu, Si, Mn, Cr, Ni Mo, W, V, Co in high speed steel, the quantometer analysis was found to be satisfactory the from various points of view. By the conventional method of spectrographic analysis, it has been found very difficult to make precise quantitative analysis of Cr, Ni, W, Co, etc., but with the photoelectic photometry system of the quantometer these could be analysed with comparatively high accuracy. The samples were standardized cast iron and high alloy steels on market, because there is not any standardized samples in high alloy steel on market. The conditions of analysis such as of spark have been almost the same as in case of low alloy steels, but it was necessary to calibrate the readings in high alloy steel owing to the different contents of Fe of internal standard line, but this calibration was made easily. In the case of cast iron and stainless steel, the analysis was achieved within the standard deviation of 1 to 3%, and the unfavourable results were found in high speed steel. This is supposed to indicate the influence of the history of the specimen.
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  • S. Sakui, K. Sato, E. Sasaki
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 12 Pages 704-707
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Specimens of α brass wires were elongated at various temperatures of the rate of working of 1200%/sec. With the apparatus illustrated in our first report, each specimen was quenched in a very short time of 0.01∼0.04 seconds after working. The microscopic structures of the specimens thus obtained were studied with special reference to recrystallization and grain growth. The microstructure of hot-worked specimens differed from that of cold-worked ones in several points. At the working temperatures below 820°, recrystallization occurred partially and mixed with the cold-worked matrix, thus showing the nonexistence of hot-working in the real sense of the term. The rate of recrystallization during hot-working seemed to be maximum at the intermediate temperatures of hot-working. The rate of grain growth during hot-working is higher than that during simple heating at the same temperature without working.
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  • S. Sakui, K. Sato, E. Sasaki
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 12 Pages 707-711
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Specimens of α brass were quenched in a very short time of 0.01∼0.04 seconds after the completion of hot-working, thus preventing the recrystallization after hot-working. We investigated those specimens with X-ray taking the Debye-Scherrer rings of Kα lines of copper. Those specimens which were worked at the so called hot-working temperature showed remarkable internal stress and grain fragmentation comparable to those of the cold-worked specimens. The effect of the degree of working on the structure of the specimens became the less, the higher the working temperature. The specimens lost its strong fiber structure and acquired a random-oriented structure by the recrystallization during air cooling after the hot-working.
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  • Tadakazu Sakurai, Tadashi Kawasaki, Hisashi Izumi
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 12 Pages 711-715
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Stress-aging treatment is a treatment that consists of heating a material at suitable temperature for a definite time and simultaneously subjecting it to a mechanical stress. The present experiment has been done in order to investigate the useful effects of the aging temperature and the aging time for the range of tensile stress above the yield point on the static strength and the hardness of mild steel. The results obtained are as follows: (1) The hardness is increased by this treatment, and the higher the temperature at which the treatment is carried out, the shorter the time required for the hardness to reach its maximum. (2) When the specimen is treated at the temperature just below its recrystallization for a short time, the largest rate of increase of the hardness and the highest strength is obtained, even though the ductility does not much decrease. (3) From the results of magnetic measurements it may be infered that the higher the aging temperature and the longer the aging time, the lower value of the residual stress is obtained. (4) By this treatment, provided the temperature and the time are suitably selected, it is possible to increase the strength and the hardness, decreasing the residual stress and keeping the ductility constant. It seems that this treatment is of considerable service in improving the mechanical properties of steel and in using materials economically.
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  • Kokichi Sano, Hiroshi Sakao
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 12 Pages 715-718
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The equilibrium relation between liquid copper containing tin and CO-CO2 gas mixtures was measured by the method described in the 1st report. By treating these experimental results thermodynamically, the equilibrium constant was determined as follows:
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    \ oindentThe apparent equilibrium constant for the deoxidation reaction of liquid copper with tin was also obtained as follows:
    (This article is not displayable. Please see full text pdf.)
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  • Noboru Furuta, Yûgoro Ishii
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 12 Pages 718-722
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    It has been observed by electron diffraction that four layers having different crystal textures exist in chips of polycrystalline copper as shown in Fig. 2. The fibrous axis common to two fibrous structures among the four textures, [110], is the same as that observed in compressed copper, which lies along the direction of compression. It is possible for us to presume a state of the stress field in the vicinity of the tool point from the results of the present experiment. Thus, we have concluded that the stress field in the vicinity of the tool point in a cutting process approximately agress with the theoretical value culculated by Shaw and his co-workers.
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  • Saburo Shimodaira
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 12 Pages 722-726
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The theoretical equations of corrosion rate, natural electrode potential,thermodynamical equibrium potential and kinetic coefficients were deduced by the method of thermodynamics of irreversible processes and the theoretical values were checked by the observed values. The magnitude of the coupling effect on the local cells is less than ten per cent.
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  • Namio Ohtani
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 12 Pages 726-728
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Using the relation between the solubility of hydrogen and heat of activation of hydrogen electrode reaction discussed concerning binary alloys of solid solution type, in the previous report, the author described the method to determine the corrosion rate in the case where the corrosion of alloy was due to the mixed control of anode and cathode reactions and examined the usefulness of this method for testing several ferrous alloys.
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  • Namio Ohtani
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 12 Pages 729-732
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The author herein discusses the corrosion rate of Cu-Zn system calculated from the heat of activation in the hydrogen electrode reaction and normal electrode potential and shows that it fairly consists with the experimental results and that the anomaly of hydrogen overvoltage in ε-phase is due to the structure of ε-phase itself.
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  • Susumu Morioka, Kazutaka Sakiyama
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 12 Pages 732-736
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The effects of carbon content and various heat treatments on the anodic behaviour of various stainless steels have been studied. A very rapid and simple but sensitive electrolytic test for determining the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to intergranular corrosion has been developed, based on the results obtained in the above experiments.
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  • Ichiji Obinata, Noboru Komatsu
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 12 Pages 736-740
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Al-20%Si alloys containing none or only one of the following addional elements, viz., sodium, magnesium, zinc, chromium, manganese, copper, cadmium, tin, lead, antimony, bismuth, iron, nickel, and cobalt, were cooled very slowly or cast in sand moulds. Then the alloys were electrolized in hydrochloric acid solution, using lead-plate as the cathode. Silicon crystals thus obtained as the anode slime were collected and subjected to goniometric, X-ray and chemical analyses. From the above experiments, three types of crystal habits of silicon have been detected as follows: (1) Granular crystal, caused by addition of sodium, consisting of {111} and {100} surfaces. (2) Prismatic crystal, caused by the addition of magnesium or zinc to the alloy, consisting essentially of {111} surface, growing in the [110] direction. (3) Platy form crystal, which is most common and is formed in plain binary alloy or alloys, containing one of the following additional elements, Chromium, manganese, copper, cadmium, tin, lead, antimony, bismuth, iron, nickel, and cobalt, consisting of {111} surfaces in which the (111) and the (\bar1\bar1\bar1) surfaces are most predominant. Although a small quantity of the added element was found to be contained in silicon crystals, no marked difference in the lattice constant have been found according to the crystal habit.
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  • Ryoichi Nozato
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 12 Pages 740-744
    Published: 1955
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The precipitation of tin from super-saturated 10% SnPb solid solution at various temperatures was studied by microscopic observation and microhardness measurement. The aging processes in 10% Sn-Pb alloy are varied acconding to the type of aging. (1) At the aging temperature of higher than about 92°, the lamellar precipitation proceeds slowly from the grain boundary to the grain center. No age-hardening is observed in this case. (2) At the aging temperature of lower than about 45°, the globular aggregation proceeds rapidly from the grain boundary to the grain center at the first stage, and then the mixture of the globular and the lamellar precipitations proceeds from the grain boundary to the grain center at the latter stage. The quenched alloy is age-hardened at the first stage and is softened at the latter stage. (3) At the aging temperature between about 45° and 92°, the mixture of the globular aggregation and the lamellar precipitation proceeds from the grain boundary to the grain center. A little age-hardening is observed in this case.
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  • [in Japanese]
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 12 Pages A239-A242
    Published: December 20, 1955
    Released: November 11, 2008
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    1955 Volume 19 Issue 12 Pages A243-A248
    Published: December 20, 1955
    Released: November 11, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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