Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals and Materials
Online ISSN : 1880-6880
Print ISSN : 0021-4876
ISSN-L : 0021-4876
Volume 23 , Issue 1
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
  • Tadayuki Nakayama
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 1-10
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Shigeo Muromachi, Shigenori Hori
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 11-14
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Using a networked specimen, the distribution of strains both during and after rolling were investigated. The networked lines were carefully scratched at 1.0 mm distance on a vertical section of a square Cu bar. In this paper,the effects of rolling reduction by the pass and the number of repeated passes through the rolls to certain reduction in relation to the magnitude of the axial, vertical and additional shearing strains were described. The results obtained were as follows: (a) Strains in half-rolling (1) In the lower reduction (1.5 & 4.1%), deformation in the central portion of the bar begins earlier than in the outside layer. In contrast to this, in higher reduction (8.2 & 28.5%), the outside layer deforms earlier than the central past. The deformation of the outside layer wes retarded in completion the central portion, regardless of the magnitude of the rolling reduction by the pass. (2) The shape of the transverse lines was not always straight and perpendicular to the rolling direction in the deformation area. (b) Strains after rolling (1) The magnitude of rolling reduction and the number of repeated passes through the rolls do not appreciably affect the uniform distribution of the axial and the vertical strains in the vertical section except in an extremely thin layer of the surface. (2) The additional shearing strain was always the greatest in the outside layer and zero in the central portion of the bar.
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  • Tadashi Ohtake, Keizo Ishizaki, Naoki Eguchi
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 15-19
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Making further investigation of the results of the authors’ previous studies on surface fissures caused by the enrichment of tramp elements while heating, the influence of sulphur on surface fissures was examined minutely, and a new preventive method was established thereby. The chief results obtained are as follows: (1) The surface fissures of steel are prevented by the following procedure: Powders of fused mixture of iron sulphide and iron oxide or of sodium sulphide are scattered uniformly upon the steel surface from which the scales has been removed mechanically and let it lying there for a while till sulphide melts and reacts upon the nonferrous alloys on the surface layer, and then the steel is hot-worked, or else the steel is immersed in molten iron sulphide and then hot-working follows: (a) The reason why such an effect attained is considered due to the reaction of iron or sodium sulphide upon the enriched, copper because of higher affinity of copper to sulphur, and the copper sulphide produced is removed from steel surface by dissolving into the molten iron sulphide, and this also reacts upon the enriched tin. (b) This preventive method is most effective when the composition of the sulphide is eutectic in FeO-FeS system, and the effect of sodium sulphide is comparatively lower than that of iron-sulphide, (c) This method is completely effective for steels containing Cu and Sn, except steel containing As. For any commercial steel containing small quantities of Cu, Sn and As, however, it is available most effectively. (2) When the steel is heated in atmosphere containing sulphur, (a) The enrichment of copper does not occur in the atmosphere containing 0.06∼0.20%SO2. (b) As the SO2 content in the atmosphere increases, the depth of cracks tends to decrease, but penetration of scale consisting of FeS-FeO-silicate ternary eutectic is intensified and brings about cracks in hot-working. (c) The scaling loss of steel is proportionally increased as the SO2 content in the atmosphere is increased and the removal of scale becomes difficult.
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  • Eiji Miyoshi
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 19-22
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    In the previous report, it was shown that the surface of wear test pieces in vacuum is covered by a very hard layer. The cause of such a layer is studied from the following point of view, namely, heat treatment, the constitution of the test pieces and some properties of the layer and wear powder. The cause of the hard layer should be considered in the following three ways; 1. The temperature rise at the surface is very remarkable and the surface layer is particularly well tempered. 2. Chemical reaction occurs even in vacuum. 3. A part of the surface and the wear powder are severely cold-worked. Even in such a low carbon steel as containing only 0.14%C, the hard layer was found. Full ferrite steels, for example, high chromium steel, high aluminum steel, and high silicon steel, also show the hard layer. So the first factor is denied. The nitrogen content in the hard layer was analysed and the microstructure after normalizing in vacuum was examined but the change was not large enough to explain the phenomenon. Hence, it is inferred that the hard layer consists of a compilation of severely and repeatedly cold-worked wear powder. Such a layer is not seen in air test. In vacuum test, the wear powder are believed to attach to the surface from where they were separated once. As the conclusion, the wear should be considered, from the following two points of view; that is, the one is separation from the surface, the other is trace of wear powders after separation.
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  • Eiji Miyoshi
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 23-26
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The effects of oxidation on wear were studied by tests in O2, N2 and air. Wear losses were measured at various air pressure and at high temperature. Wear is profoundly effected by partial pressure of O2, but not by partial pressure of N2. In vacuum, a hard layer prevents separation of wear powder from the surfaces. The maximum of wear appears at 0.1∼1 mmHg partial pressure of O2. This is because the metallic surfaces are in contact with each other and the oxide prevents the wear powder from attaching again to the surface. It is believed that the quantity of oxide decides the state of wear. Thin layer of oxide gives unfavorable effect from the wear point of view. From this series of study on wear at high temperatures, it is concluded that steels for hot working tool steel should be selected by its heat-resisting properties and oxidability, and that a thin oxidized surface accelerates wear at high temperature.
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  • Hideo Kaneko, Katashi Masumoto
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 26-30
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The iodide process and the hydrogen reduction process of SiCl4 have been investigated as methods for preparing high purity silicon. The reactions of these processes are both heterogeneous, taking place on a hot surface. In the iodide process, the amount of Si deposition through thermal decomposition of SiI4 on the hot surface of an iodide cell consisting of a fused quartz tube was studied as a function of the four following operating variables: (a) the amount of iodine introduced in the cell, (b) the temperature of SiI4, (c) the temperature of the decomposition furnace and (d) the thermal decomposition time. In the reduction process, the yield of Si deposition through the reduction of SiCl4 by H2 on the hot surface of quartz tube in the reduction cell was studied as a function of three variables: (a) the temperature of H2-SiCl4 mixing chamber, (b) the H2 flow rate, and (c) the reduction temperature. The results of spectroscopic analysis of Si prepared by these processes are shown in Table 2. Si obtained by the reduction process show shigher purity than from the iodide process.
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  • Tsuneo Sasahara, Mayumi Someno, Hisaya Nagasaki
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 30-34
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The conditions of formation of tungsten silicides, when tungsten powder or stoichiometric mixed powders of WSi2 and W3Si2 were heated in hydrogen or silicon tetrachloride- containing atmospheres, were examined by chemical and X-ray analysis. Above 1000°C,tungsten powder reacted with silicon tetrachloride and formed WSi2 in a hydrogen atmosphere,but did not react in a neutral atmosphere even at 1300°. In the case of mixed powders, the cilicides were formed above 1300° in pure hydrogen gas, but at a lower temperature, such as 900°C, in both hydrogen and neutral atmospheres mixed with silicon tetrachloride gas. The X-ray diffraction lines of WSi2 and W3Si2 showed a good agreement throse reported in the past. The silicide “W3Si2” showed tetragonal structure and not D88-structure.
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  • Nakaaki Oda, Gorô Tsuchihashi
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 34-38
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    A method for determining total oxygen contained in titanium tetrachloride, one of the raw materials in Kroll process, has been studied in order to control the oxygen content which has a marked effect on the properties of the titanium metal. This paper contains the following results. (1) The chemical properties of titanium tetrachloride, the various types of oxygen-containing impurities in titanium tetrachloride, and also the applicability of the conventional methods for oxygen analysis to titanium tetrachloride have been studied. And it has been considered that all of the oxygen in the volatile parts of these impurities may be converted to carbon monoxide by the carbon-reduction-thermal decomposition method in argon-bromine atomosphere and determined gravimetrically as carbon dioxide, while oxygen in the non-volatile parts may be retained as titanium dioxide and calculated from the determined value of titanium in this titanium dioxide. (2) As the results of detailed preliminary work, a carbon-reduction—thermal decomposition apparatus for analysing the total oxygen in titanium tetrachloride by the proposed method was developed, in which a sampler devised to eliminate any contamination through out the operation from taking the sample to inserting it into the apparatus and a platinum-lined reaction tube that forms no blank due to packed carbon are used.
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  • Nakaaki Oda, Gorô Tsuchihashi
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 38-42
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The results of the present study may be summarized as follows: (1) Oxygen recovery test has been carried out with various standard organic compounds and titanium tetrachloride containing vanadium oxytrichloride, phosgene and sucrose, applying the proposed carbon-reduction thermal decomposition method and the apparatus illustrated in the 1st report. In these experiments the authors have found that a portion of oxygen-containing impurities having low boiling points had been volatilized and careied out by the argon stream for purging after the sample had been put at the appointed place. In order to catch these volatile components and send them into the analytical system, a trap was attached to the apparatus. Using this improved apparatus, about 100 per cent of oxygen recovery has been obtained with each standard sample mentioned above. From these results, it has been proved that various volatile oxygen-containing impurities in titanium tetrachloride can be analysed by this method (2) It was found that oxygen in the non-volatile hydrolysed products of titanium tetrachloride can be retained as titanium dioxide out of the carbon-reduction-thermal decomposition system, and calculated from the detrmined value of titanium in this residue. (3) The sum of the oxygen content in the volatile and the non-volatile parts gives the total oxygen in titanium tetrachloride. (4) The precision of the oxygen per cent obtained by the carbon-reduction—thermal decomposition process is about 5 per cent in the terms of coefficient of variation (%) when a sample contains 0.004 per cent of oxygen, and oxygen recovery is about 100 per cent with titanium tetrachloride standard sample containing vanadium oxytrichloride and phosgene as impurities.
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  • Kazuo Ota, Shigeru Mori
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 42-44
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The existing method for the direct photometric determination of small amounts of lead in cast iron by dithizone extraction involves the warming of the solution with NH2OH·HCl, Rochelle salt and KCN, for masking Fe(III) present as the principal constituent,but this warming may cause variable results due to imcompleteness of the masking. The authors herein show an accurate procedure in which the warming of the solution is avoided by first reducing Fe(III) with NH2OH. HCl at the pH 2.5∼3.0 and then adding Rochelle salt and KCN. One extractoin is effective enough by using C6H6 instead of CHCl3 or CCl4 as solvent of dithizone even in the presence of large amounts of Fe. The proposed method is suitable for cast iron and also carbon steel containing 0.0003 to 0.04% of Pb.
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  • Takuichi Morinaga, Shigeo Zaima
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 45-48
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The phenomena and the theories on the aging of the duralumin have apparently been exhaustively searched, but it is open to discussion if the search have been minute enough. For example, when the hardness is measured during aging, the measured values up to the saturating value are recognized to have considerable variation, and it apears not quite possible to decide that this phenomenon depends upon the dispersion of the measured values. In this study, we investigated the aging in early stages in relation to the internal friction by measuring the damping capacity during torsional damped oscillation. We know that duralumin fluctuates very widely in internal composition and remains in the unstable state in early stages of aging in which many peaked values of the damping capacity are specially observed. As the other properties are naturally affected with some corpelation to the damping capacity by the internal changes, we can tell the curve of the change in hardness approaches the saturated value gradually not in a smooth curve but with some fluctuations.
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  • Hiroyasu Mitani, Norihiko Nakanishi
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 48-52
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    In our 1st report, we stated that there were two types of β′ transformed from β by martensitic way, the one occurring with large expansion by rapid cooling (Vc>500°C/min), and the other occurring with contraction at the rate of 500°C/min>Vc>15°C/min. In this report, we will give the results of our study on the effect of Al content on the duplicate property of the β-β′ transformation. We have obtained some interesting results, as follows: (1) A maximum quantity of expansion and a minimum critical cooling velocity for formation of the expanded β′ were recognized in 12.52%Al specimen. (2) The expansion increased as the quenching temperature rose in 12.18% and 12.64%Al specimens. (3) The γ′ martensite which occurred in the hyper-eutectoid alloys, for ex., 13.59% and 13.94%Al specimens, did not show such a duplicate property of the β′ martensite. (4) Abnormal thermal contraction and lowering of electrical resistance took place at 200∼300°C following tempering in 10.2% and 10.58%Al specimens. (5) The Ms temperature of contracted β′ transformed by both air-cooling and furnace-cooling lay within the temperature range of 250∼290°C. (6) Upon microscopic observation, we found the characteristic features of β′ transformed by water cooling, air-cooling and furnace-cooling, respectively. The propable nature of the transformation from β to martensite was also discussed.
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  • Zenji Nishiyama, Satohiro Hayami
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 53-55
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    X-ray diffraction micrographs of slip bands have been taken by the Berg-Barrett method, using elongated aluminium single crystals. It has been found that the lamellae S running parallel to the slip bands shift laterally with the change of the glancing angle, the direction being opposite for the neighbouring lamellae. This shift can be interpreted as the existence of twists on the slip plane whose directions are opposite for the neighbouring slip bands. In addition it has been found that the lamellae S have locality characters: The spotty reflection and the discontinuous lateral shift. These characters show the existence of the local lattice curvature at the slip bands.
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  • Ichiji Obinata, Shigeo Aoki
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 55-59
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    At the temperature range between 500° and 800°, the hardness, the resistance to deformation and the oxidation behavior of some kinds of Ti-Al-base alloys have been stadied. The nominal compositions of the alloys tested were Ti-1%Al, Ti-3%Al, Ti-5%Al, Ti-5%Al-2%Cu, Ti-5%Al-0.5%Si and Ti-5%Al-2.5%Sn. The results obtained may be summarised as follows: (1) The addition of aluminium increases the hardness and the resistance to deformation of titanium. (2) The addition of the third elements to Ti-5%Al increases the resistance to deformation conspicuously at the temperature range 700∼800°. (3) Aluminium improves the oxidation resistance of titanium and prevents the diffusion of oxygen to the metallic core. (4) Generally, the ternary alloys showed excellent oxidation resistance compared with that of binary alloys. (5) Many knick points, that is the abrupt change of reaction velocity of oxidation, have been observed on the oxidation-time curves at 800°. (6) According to the results of electron-diffraction analysis,the scales formed by the oxidation were found always consisting of rutile(TiO2).
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  • Masashige Koyama
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 60-63
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The relation between substructure and purity was investigated by using zone-refined tin. In single crystals of zone-refined tin, grown in parallel with [110] at fairly high speed (e.g. 0.8 mm/min) there appeared no linear substructure. The reticulate substructure of irregular shape was less in these crystals than in the specimen of low purity. As to the perfection of crystal, no difference was almost observed between two specimens which were grown from zone-refined tin at speeds of 0.05 and 0.8 mm/min respectively. Therefore, at speeds below a certain value, the speed of growth seems have no influence upon the perfection of crystal, and is high purity, most important.
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  • Masashige Koyama
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 64-67
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Using single crystals of tin grown in the [100] and [001] directions, the relation between the substructure and the crystallographic orientation was examined by means of X-ray diffraction microscopy. As in the previous reports, the linear substructures, detected by the X-ray microscopy, developed from the reticulate substructures and their orientation difference increased with the growth. In this case, the increase of the orientation differences was accelerated by the formation of new corrugations along the linear subboundaries.
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  • Hiroshi Asada, Hideo Yoshinaga
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 67-71
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Nonbasal slips and twins were investigated at elevated temperatures (20∼347°C), using coarse grained magnesium tensile specimens produced by the strain-anneal method. The results obtained were as follows: (1) In crystals with such orientations as χB (the angle between the basal plane and the stress axis)≈0°, a {10\bar11}⟨11\bar20⟩ pyramidal slip occured even at 120°C, a temperature much lower than the Schmid’s critical temperature (225°C); (2) In some case, {10\bar10}⟨11\bar20⟩ prismatic slips were observed as the secondary nonbasal slips; (3) No nonbasal slip was observed at room temperature; (4) The pyramidal slip bands were always wavy, mainly owing to the accompanying basal slip; (5) While {10\bar12} type primary twins were always observed independently of orientation, {10\bar11} (or {30\bar34}) twins occured in those crystals of χB≈0°.
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  • Susumu Morioka, Akimi Umezono
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 71-74
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Cathodic potential measurements on Pt, Cu, Ti, Zn, and Al electrodes were carried out at various current densities in aqueous solution of (NH4)2TiF6. The solution contains the cations Ti4+, NH4+ and H+, and the anions TiF6−−, F and OH according to the following equations:
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    Though Ti4+ ions begin to be reduced at about −0.8 V (vs. S.C.E.), the potential where the titanium deposition becomes visible is less noble than −1.1∼−1.2 V. The mechanism of the electrodeposition of titanium is either the direct discharge of Ti4+ ions or the reduction of titanium ions of lower valency such as Ti3+ or Ti2+ to metallic titanium by active hydrogen, but since a simultaneous evolution of hydrogen with the deposition of titanium was observed, the mechanism could not be identified in the present experiments.
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  • Mikio Yamamoto, Jirô Watanabe, Katashi Masumoto, Toshiyuki Kawad ...
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 75-79
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The light figure phenomenon of silicon single crystal etched with various chemical reagents has been studied in order to find out the light figures or the etching conditions suitable for the orientation determination and to obtain the information regarding crystal faces developed by etching. Etching with aqueous solutions of potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide boiled or heated at 100° or 70°C produce distinct {100}, {110} and {111} light figures, while any other reagent reveals only indistinct light figures or no light figure at all. It has been found that for the orientation works the etching with saturated aqueous solution of either alkali heated over some 100°C are most suitable in view of the shortness of the required etching time (<2∼3 minutes). The crystal faces developed by etching with alkaline reagents vary with the kind, concentration and temperature of the reagent and the time of etching, and belong to the ⟨100⟩ and ⟨110⟩ zones, the {111} and {100} faces being commonly developed.
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  • Masuji Kyotani
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 79-82
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The recrystallization temperature of refined high purity zinc (zone-refined from 99.999 pct distillated zinc) after rolling reduction, has been examined by means of X-ray analysis and of microscopic study, with three kinds of pure zinc of purities of 99.1, 99.98, 99.999 pct as controls. Hardness tests were made on these specimens cold-rolled and annealed. These hardness curves were found to show some different aspects from the ordinary curves taken on metals or alloys, cold-rolled in various degrees and then annealed at various temperatures. From such results it has been concluded that the recrystallization temperature cannot be exactly determined from these hardness-annealing curves. It was ascertained by means of X-ray analysis using low temperature camera that the recrystallization of high purity zinc began at lower temperature than that of low purity one, and that such super-purity zinc as was zone-refined from 99.999 pct distillated zinc would begin to recrystallize for 1 hr by keeping for 1 hr at about −70°C after 50 pct cold rolling, and complete at −70°C after 90 pct cold rolling, after storaging in dry ice and aceton solution at −78°C.
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