Few reports have been published on the results of measurement of the triaxial residual stress in the heat treated hard steel cylinder with a small diameter. In this report, the results of measurement of the residual stress on a 0.45%C steel specimen with a diameter of 11.3 mm which had been quenched and tempered are shown, by using the author’s method for the measurement of residual stress. In general, the specific volume at each portion in the specimen becomes different by quenching, and its distribution changes by tempering. The residual stress due to quenching is not released but seems to change its distribution by tempering. The change of the residual stress and the specific volume distribution by tempering may be correlated with the structure change.
A method for the anion-exchange separation and gravimetric determination of niobium and tantalum in titanium alloys and zirconium-base alloys has been developed. Niobium up to 40 mg, and tantalum up to 60 mg in 6N hydrofluoric-4N hydrochloric acid solution containing a maximum of 2.5 g of titanium or zirconium ion per 50 mL, can be quantitatively adsorbed on a 35-cm column prepared from 25 mL (swelling volume in water) of the strong-base anion-exchange resin Dowex 1-X4(F, Cl) at the flow rate from 3 to 4 mL per square cm per minute. After washing the column, niobium cotaining no tantalum can be eluted with 200 mL of 3M ammonium chloride-1N hydrofluoric acid solution (A), and tantalum containing no niobium with 200 mL of 3M ammonium chloride-1M ammonium fluoride solution. For a mixture of niobium and tantalum, niobium can be separately eluted with 200 mL of 2.3N hydrofluoric-3.0N hydrochloric acid solution (B). The eluate (A) containing niobium is neutralized with ammonium hydroxide solution. Then niobium, and tantalum in the eluate are precipitated with cupferron at the temperature below 10°C after adjusting the acidity to 1∼2N by the addition of 8 g of boric acid and sufficient hydrochloric acid. Niobium in the eluate (B) is also precipitated quantitatively from 2∼3N hydrochloric acid solution with cupferron after the addition of 40 mL of ammonium hydroxide solution and 15 g of boric acid. The precipitates are filterd, washed, ignited at 1000°C for an hour, and weighed as Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 respectively. Nitric acid may be present up to 3N under the conditions of the adsorption. All elements normally found in titanium alloys and zirconium-base alloys cause no interference under the developed conditions. Amounts of 0.1∼30 percent niobium, and 0.1∼5 percent tantalum in titanium alloys and zirconium-base alloys are determined by a developed method, the results of which show moderate precision and satisfaction.
The self-diffusion coefficients of nickel and chromium in nickel-chromium alloys containing 0 to 30 at% of chromium have been measured with a usual lathe sectioning technique. Polycrystalline specimens having 1 to 4 mm grain size were used. Measurements were carried out over the temperature range from 1040° to 1300°C. In all alloys examined, chromium atom diffuses more rapidly than nickel atom, and the ratio of diffusion coefficient of chromium to that of nickel is about 1.6 independent of the chromium content over the whole temperature range. Diffusion rates of both elements decrease slightly with the increasing content of chromium. The frequency factors for nickel self-diffusion are 1.9, 3.3, 1.6, and 2.9 cm2/sec, and the activation energies are 68.0, 70.2, 68.5, and 70.5 kcal/mol in alloys containing 0, 10.0, 19.9 and 29.7 at% chromium, respectively. For chromium, self-diffusion in respective alloys, the frequency factors are 1.1, 1.4, 1.9, and 3.2 cm2/sec, and the activation energies are 65.1, 66.5, 67.7 and 69.4 kcal/mol.
The self-diffusion coefficients of nickel and copper in nickel-copper alloys containing 0 to 100%Cu have been measured with a usual lathe sectioning technique. Polycrystalline specimens having 1 to 4 mm grain size were used. Measurements were carried out at the high temperature range near the melting point of each alloy. In this alloy system, copper atom diffuses more rapidly than nickel atom, and for each composition the ratio of diffusion coefficient of copper to that of nickel is from 2.5 to 6 over the temperature range examined. Diffusion rates of both elements increase with increasing copper contents. The frequency factors for nickel self-diffusion are determined to be 1.9, 35, 17, 0.063 and 1.7 cm2/sec, and the activation energies are 68.0, 74.9, 66.8, 49.7 and 55.3 kcal/mol in alloys containing 0,13.0, 45.4, 78.5 and 100 at% copper, respectively. For copper self-diffusion in respective alloys, the frequency factors are 0.57, 1.5, 2.3, 1.9 and 0.33 cm2/sec, and the activation energies are 61.7, 63.0, 60.3, 55.3 and 48.2 kcal/mol.
The self-diffusion coefficients of nickel and tungsten in nickel-tungsten alloys containing 0 to 9 at%W have been measured with a usual lathe sectioning technique. Polycrystalline specimens having 1 to 4 mm grain size were used. Measurements were carried out over the temperature range from about 1100° to 1400°C. In this system, nickel atom diffuses more rapidly than tungsten atom, and the ratio of diffusion coefficient of nickel to that of tungsten is from 3 to 4 for each composition over the temperature range examined. Diffusion rates of both elements decrease with increasing tungsten contents. The frequency factors for nickel self-diffusion are 1.9, 30, 58 and 1.1 cm2/sec, and the activation energies are 68.0, 76.5, 80.6 and 70.3 kcal/mol for alloys containing 0, 1.7, 5.3 and 9.2 at% tungsten, respectively. For tungsten self-diffusion in respective alloys, the frequency factors obtained are 2.0, 2.2, 17 and 1.4 cm2/sec, and the activation energies are 71.5, 73.1, 80.5 and 74.5 kcal/mol.
The magnetostriction and magnetization single crystals of 6.4%Si-Fe and 50.13%Co-Ni alloys having ,  and  directions have been measured at high temperatures after being thermally demagnetized. And also the time changes of magnetostriction and magnetization during the application of the external field of 285 Oe have been continuously traced from the moment of the application of the field at various temperatures. The periodic changes in the magnetostriction constants of 6.4%Si-Fe single crystals of ,  and  directions is abnormal, but those of 50.13%Co-Ni single crystals are normal and almost the same as of Ni. The amount of the time change of magnetostriction during isothermal magnetic annealing in a crystal with the direction of easy magnetization is very large, but that in each crystal with the direction of hard magnetization is small or not observed. A remarkable preliminary relaxation phenomenon appears between 250° and 350°C and a secondary one at the temperature higher than 500°C in  and  single crystals of 6.4%Si-Fe alloy. The secondary relaxation phenomenon does not appear in 50.13%Co-Ni single crystals. The reason for this fact may be attributed to the difference in crystal structures and the amounts of magnetostriction of the two alloys. The time, temperature and stress dependences of these two relaxation phenomena are very similar to the micro-creep under a constant small stress. From these results it is concluded that there are two different magnetic annealing effects in ferromagnetic materials or the Si-Fe alloy. The preliminary phenomenon may be called the low temperature effect and the secondary one the high temperature effect, but in case of the Co-Ni alloy, these two effects can not be clearly destinguished as both effects begin to occur at 300°C. These two effects may be considered due to the magnetostriction at high temperatures.
The effects of austenitizing, sub-zero quenching, cold rolling, and aging conditions on the mechanical properties of 17-7 PH stainless steel at elevated temperatures up to 500°C were investigated. The results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) The steel aged properly showed excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures up to 500°C. (2) The change of the elevated temperature tensile properties was almost similar to the room temperature properties; the tensile and yield strengths rose rapidly in the early stage of aging and then gradually attain maximum values. At every testing temperature, the maximum tensile and yield strengths obtained by relatively low temperature aging were greater than those by high temperature aging, and the difference decreased with the testing temperature. (3) When the amount of martensite in the specimens austenitized at 950°C and 775°C were regulated in a similar way to the sub-zero treatment, the mechanical properties of the two after aging were seemed to be almost equal, except that the elongation of the former was slightly greater than that of the latter. As the temperature for the sub-zero treatment, −80°C was found to be effective rather than −175°C.
The present study was carried out at a high temperature range of 1200°C to 1800°C under a very low CO pressure of about 10−2 mmHg, and further investigation of reduction on the reaction products was made in a molten state using the carbon arc under a low pressure of CO. It was found that the reduction products obtained by the solid reaction concerning TiO2 were of a solid solution of the crystal structure of the NaCl type. The carbon and oxygen contents varied with a relation of (O)·(C)\fallingdotseqconstant depending on the variation of the amount of carbon added. They were decreased by the carbon-arc reduction in the molten state under the lower CO pressure, and the sum (O)+(C) was about 7.7% by repeating the arc reduction several times. The oxygen content in the crude Ti thus obtained was greatly decreased by the addition of Si metal or Ca-Si alloy. Experiments of the carbon reduction of Ti-slags, containing various kinds of impurities, were performed above 1500°C in vaccum and then their products were melted by the carbon arc under the low pressure of CO. Impurities such as Si, Mn, Fe and Al in the crude Ti obtained by the above method were decreased to a degree of traces for Si, Mn and Fe and below 0.2% for Al.
This experiment was conducted on the spectrophotometric method with xylenol orange, for the purpose of establishing a simple and accurate determining method for obtaining the amount of niobium in heat resisting steel. First of all, the condition for the formation of the xylenol orange complex salt of niobium was studied. Next, the effect of the coexisting elements was determined experimentally, and the procedure was decided. The xylenol orange complex salt of niobium is formed quantitatively in a short period in a tartaric acid solution of pH 3.00∼3.35 by heating in a boiling water bath. The absorption maximum of this complex salt is at 530∼565 milli microns. In this experiment, the absorbance was measured at 565 milli microns. At this wavelength, the relation between the amounts of niobium and the absorbance followed Beer’s law in the range from 0.00 to 0.25 mg/100 mL of niobium. In this method, there is no significant effect even in case 0.5 mg each of chromium, cobalt, tantalum and titanium, 0.1 mg of copper, 3 mg of iron, 1 mg each of manganese and nickel, 10 mg of molybdenum, and 20 mg of tungsten are contained in the separated sample solution. Aluminum, vanadium and zirconium interfere markedly. Potassium pyrosulfate which is used for the fusing of niobium pentoxide will be harmful. However, this effect appears constant in the range from 0.4 to 0.6 g in the separated sample solution. As a result of the experiment, the author succeeded to establish a method in which 0.1 to 5% of niobium in heat resisting steel can be measured easily and accurately. The amount of niobium in actual samples was measured by this method with satisfactory results.
There are many unknown factors in lubricating mechanism of lubricants and friction of plastic deformation of metals. The lubricating mechanism of lubricants in the rolling process has been investigated by the compression test of the cylindrical test piece as a proper method to estimate the lubricants of rolling. In this report, the compression test is conducted on aluminium, copper, mild steel and stainless steel at temperatures of 100°, 200°, 300°, 400°C and room temperature with various kinds of lubricants. The results obtained are as follows: (1) It is necessary to consider the elastic strain of the testing machine for calculating the friction coefficient from the load-strain curve of the compressing deformation. (2) In comparison with both friction coefficients of rolling and compressing, there is tendency that the rolling show a smaller friction coefficient than the compression coefficient. This is considered due to the diference in the amount of friction length. (3) In the compression test with the mineral oil of various viscosity, there is the decrease in the friction coefficient with a slight increase of viscosity in case of the viscosity below 100 Redwood sec at 50°C. However, at the viscosity of over 100 Redwood sec at 50°C, there are little change in the friction coefficient by the variety of viscosity. (4) The order of lubricaing effects is variant by the variety of lubricants, but the palm oil or beef-tarrow oil shows a lower friction coefficient at room temperature and paste oil containing MoS2, stearic acid soap or paraffine chrolide shows good lubricating effects at a high temperature.
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Wrong:1.0‾20 mm, at 100°C, [in Japanese], Yield Point (dg/mm2), G. I. Aksenov……
Right:1.0‾25 mm, at 1100°C, [in Japanese], Yield Point (kg/mm2), D. A. Katrus, I. M. Fedochenko, G. A. Vivogradov, Soviet Powder Met., (1962), 25.