Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals and Materials
Online ISSN : 1880-6880
Print ISSN : 0021-4876
ISSN-L : 0021-4876
Volume 28 , Issue 9
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Takeaki Kikuchi, Toshio Kurosawa, Tetsuo Yagihashi
    1964 Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 497-501
    Published: 1964
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Equilibrium constants of the fundamental reaction of aluminium subhalide process, 2Al(l)+AlCl3(g)=3AlCl(g), were determined by the flow method using argon carrier between 1000° and 1250°C. As a result of this experiment, the equilibrium constant and the standard free energy were obtained from the following equation:
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    Combining the experimental data with the previous thermodynamical values, the heat of formation and the entropy of AlCl(g) were obtained −22,250 cal/mol, 48.7 cal/mol respectively. By the use of the equilibrium constant, the reaction ratio of AlCl3 was calculated at a reduced pressure and in argon carrier respectively.
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  • Takeo Fujiwara, Tetumasa Shingai
    1964 Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 502-507
    Published: 1964
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Ashy-black micro-pits were newly found on the surface of rolled plate of extra super duralumin (7075S-T6) by one of the writers. Then, the shape of the pits and the distribution of compositions of Al, Zn, Cu & Fe in the inner surface of them were made clear using an optical microscope, an electron microscope and an X-ray microanalyser. Moreover, it was found that there was no effect of the corrosion by sea-water on the ashy-black micro-pits mentioned above. It was concluded that the ashy-black micro-pits were produced by the formation of FeAl3 compound in the micro-portion of the rolled plate. The tensile strength of the rolled plate might be reduced by the formation of such FeAl3 compound in them.
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  • Hiroe Osafune, Shigezo Tanaka
    1964 Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 507-513
    Published: 1964
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Different types of striation patterns appearing in the recrystalized layers which are formed by alloying the carrier metal into a Ge wafer in a cycle of heating and cooling have been investigated by means of Cu plating and chemical etching.
    The carrier metals used were In, Pb, Sn and Bi, and the recrystalized layers were formed by the constitutional supercooling while the alloying of the carrier metal into the Ge single crystal wafer was performed at different temperatures and cooling rates. These striation patterns have depends on the distribution coefficient and solid solubility of the carrier metal in Ge. The mechanism of poly-crystalization of the single recrystalized layer with higher concentrations of the dope in the layer is also discussed.
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  • Masataka Sugiyama, Takashi Furukawa
    1964 Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 513-521
    Published: 1964
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This work is one of the series of studies which are concerned with basic data for the effects of additions of small amounts of low-melting point elements on the age-hardening of Cu-Be alloys. Using samples of Cu-Be alloys containing 1 to 2% of beryllium added with 0 to 1% of indium, investigations have been made mainly on age-hardening curves within the range of 275° to 350°C, microstructures and mechanical properties in the aged state after solution treatment at 800°C. The results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) Attainable hardness and other mechanical properties of Cu-Be alloys after aging are improved by indium addition, and the most prominent improvement is obtained when about 0.3% (0.15 at%) of indium is contained. The discontinuous precipitation is also supressed most greatly at this quantity of indium. This optimum amount of indium does not vary regardless of whether the alloy is cold rolled before aging. Therefore, it seems that this optimum amount is not especially sensitive to dislocation density. In case the beryllium content is as high as 2%, the optimum amount of indium is broadened to a range of 0.2 to 0.5%. (2) The activation energy of precipitation obtained from age-hardening curves is 23 kcal/mol for 50% cold rolled Cu-1.5%Be binary alloy, but it decreases to 16 kcal/mol when the alloy contains 0.3% indium. It is considered that the added indium facilitates the nucleation of coherent precipitation and thus lowers the activation energy of nucleation. Improvement in mechanical properties of Cu-1.5%Be alloy by the addition of 0.3% indium is superior to the addition of 0.3% cobalt.
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  • Masataka Sugiyama, Takashi Furukawa
    1964 Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 521-529
    Published: 1964
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    It seems possible that additions of small amounts of several common low-melting-point elements around indium in the periodic table may have some significant effects on age-hardening of Cu-Be alloys, since the previous work has shown that the addition of indium has a pronounced influence on the response of Cu-Be to aging. Experiments have been performed using samples of Cu-1.6%Be ternary alloys with less than 1% of phosphorus, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, tin, antimony or lead to investigate the effect of each element on the age-hardening curves and aged microstructures after solution treatment at 800°C and 50% reduction by cold-rolling. The addition of phosphorus or arsenic promotes greatly the discontinuous precipitation and over-aged softening. Zinc also acts in the same way but much less. A small amount of lead has no significant effect. Contrary to these, the addition of cadmium, tin or antimony supresses the discontinuous precipitation, making the alloy more insensitive to over-aging and improving the mechanical properties. In case the amount of cadmium, tin or antimony is about 0.13 at%, the activation energy obtained from aging curves decreases to the range of 13 to 15 kcal/mol which is fairly lower than that obtained in Cu-Be binary alloy by the same method. The reason of this may be explained by the facilitation of nucleation as in the case of indium addition. Examined elements, indium, cadmium, tin and antimony, which have been verified to improve the aging properties of Cu-Be, have larger atomic sizes than copper. Their size-factors for copper are at the borderline or slightly unfavourable.
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  • Masataka Sugiyama, Takashi Furukawa
    1964 Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 530-536
    Published: 1964
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Magnesium may be effective as an additional element for Cu-Be alloy because its atomic size and size-factor for copper are fairly analogous to those of indium, cadmium, tin and antimony whose good effects on aging properties of Cu-Be have already been shown by the authors’ previous works. Considering this, the age-hardening and mechanical properties of Cu-1.6%Be alloys after the addition of around 0.5% magnesium have been examined. It has been proved that these alloys are insensitive to over-aged softening up to the aging temperature of 350°C and have excellent mechanical properties.
    Cerium and lanthanum are in a different category from the other additional elements examined so farin the respect that both of them form intermetallic compounds with copper which are stable up to fairly high temperatures and neither of them has any solubility for copper. Using samples of Cu-1.6%Be alloys containing 0.17% and 0.42% of a mixture of CeLa, the aging properties have been investigated. An intermetallic compound identified as CeCu6 is formed in these samples. In order to improve the aging properties, it is necessary to disperse this compound into the matrix by cold-rolling after solution treatment. Although the incoherent precipitation is not always supressed in these cold-rolled samples on aging, it appears as finely dispersed particles under the electron microscope. These alloys are insensitive to over-aging up to 350°C.
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  • Seita Sakui, Tsutomu Mori
    1964 Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 537-542
    Published: 1964
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It was observed that under the dynamic tensile test (1.96 m/sec) fine grained iron and mild steel show only slight elongation less than a few per cent, while coarse grained specimens do large elongation. In the case of fine grained specimens which showed apparent brittle failure, the deformation was concentrated near the necked region, and no propagation along the full gage length of the specimen is allowed. From the theory of strain propagation the quasi-critical impact velocity was deduced for a material with lower yield point and Lüders elongation. The quasi-critical impact velocity is similar to the critical impact velocity given by T. von Karman although there are some modifications. It has been proved that the quasi-critical impact velocity decreases with decreasing grain size. In fine grained specimens, therefore, the impact velocity can easily exceed the quasi-critical impact velocity. This is thought to be the cause that fine grained iron and mild steel exhibit unusual apparent brittle failure under the dynamic test.
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  • Isao Gokyu, Hideo Abe, Norihiko Ueyama
    1964 Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 542-548
    Published: 1964
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The effect of solution-treatment of carbon and nitrogen prior to cold-rolling on the textures of low carbon steels was studied by magnetic torque and X-ray pole figure methods. The following results have been obtained:
    (1) The harmonic coefficient a4 of magnetic torque after cold-rolling always showed a positive value and increased with cold-rolling reduction by the development of the (100)[011]+(2\bar11)[011] texture. At the same cold-rolling reduction, no remarkable difference could be observed between the deformation texture of the rimmed steel and that of the killed steel.
    Significant influence of the solution-treatment on the cold-rolling texture could not be observed in both steels.
    (2) On annealing for 1 hr at 700°C, the coefficient a4 decreased to a negative value and the maximum absolute value was obtained by the reduction of 70%. The absolute values of a4 obtained on annealing the 50 and 70% rolled sheets were found to be raised by the solution-treatment prior to the cold-rolling. The (200) pole figures indicated that the total amount of (hk0)[001] type components was increased by the solution-treatment. The recrystallization texture of the 90% rolled sheets consisted of two main components of (111)[11\bar2] and (411)[148], which were not affected by the solution-treatment. As in the case of the cold-rolling texture, the recrystallization textures of the rimmed and killed steels were found to be almost the same.
    (3) The variation of the recrystallization texture by the solution-treatment prior to cold-rolling may be interpreted by the change in the distribution of precipitates before the primary recrystallization, which has influence on the selective nucleation or growth of the recrystallized grains.
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  • Sakae Takeuchi, Osamu Watanabe
    1964 Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 549-554
    Published: 1964
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The electrolytic reduction has been made mainly on CaCl2-CaO-TiO2 (or Ti-slag) electrolyte solution in the temperature range of 950°∼1250°C, below 2.5 volt and under inert gas atomosphere.
    By the reduction in the electrolysis of TiO2, the deposited metal contained 1∼2% carbon and oxygen respectively, and their metals has the V.H.N. 250∼350 on the arc melt button ingot.
    Using the diaphragm which has been made of CaTiO3, contents of carbon in the deposited metal were decreased to less than 0.5%. In the electrolysis of Ti-slag, the impurities such as Mn, Si, Al and Fe are incidentally contained in the deposited titanium, and their contents depend on the form of their oxides and their solubilities to the bath.
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  • Shigeo Horiuchi, Isao Gokyu
    1964 Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 555-558
    Published: 1964
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A texture of a heavily cold-rolled copper sheet was studied by means of the direct observation method using an electron microscope. Dislocations of high density uniformly distributed and no remarkable features were found in the microstructures except clear band structures locally formed. The ratio of linear dimensions of regions with (011), (112), (001) and other orientations was 55:27:5:13. The region with the (011) or (112) orientation formed a uniform structure, while the region with the (001) orientation was found in a band structure. The [\={2}\={1}1] direction in the (011) plane, the [2\={1}1] direction in the (011) plane, the [11\={1}] direction in the (112) plane and the [100] direction in the (001) plane were almost parallel to the rolling direction with the highest probability. The orientation scattering of them about the normal to the rolling plane was found to be about ±15, which coincided with the result obtained from the X-ray pole figure.
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  • Sennosuke Takahashi, Keiichi Iida, Masao Adachi
    1964 Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 559-562
    Published: 1964
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The dependence of steady state creep rate on temperature and stress was investigated an Ni-Al2O3 type dispersion strengthened alloys containing 1∼5 wt% alumina as extruded. The activation energy of steady state creep was about 70,000∼90,000 cal/mol. Steady state creep rate was proportional to σn, where σ is the stress. The value of n, however, was 6∼12, being larger than 4 which was proposed theoretically by G.S.Ansell et al. on the annealed SAP type alloys.
    It is considered that their theoretical equation need not be essentially modified by the substitution of the stress σ−σ0 for σ using appropriately defined σ0.
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  • Ichiji Obinata, Yo Takeuchi, Kensuke Kurihara, Masaharu Watanabe
    1964 Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 562-568
    Published: 1964
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Bekanntlich üben die Zusätze von Alkali-und Erdalkalimetallen zu Eisenschmelzen vor allem zur Veredelung des Gußeisens durch Kugelgraphitstruktur eine beachtliche Wirkung aus. Auch wegen ihrer starken Affinität für Gase in der Schmelze hieraus folgt eine interessante Möglickeit der Eigenschaftsverbesserung für Stähle sowie Kupferlegierungen. Dies wirft die Frage auf, wie diese Metalle zur Eisenschmelze wirksam zugesetzt werden kann. Zu diesem Zweck könnte man vorschlagen, diese Metalle in Form einer Legierung mit Mangan sowie Silizium zu verwenden. Das System Mangan-Kalzium ist kürzlich von den Verfassern (1) ausgearbeitet worden. Auf Grund der Erfahrungen wurden die Systeme Mangan-Lithium, Mangan-Barium und Mangan-Strontium untersucht und die Zustandsbider als Entwurf aufgestellt. In diesen drei Systemen ist keine intermetallische Verbindung als dritte Phase vorhanden. Die Bestandteile dieser Legierungen sind im flüßigen Zustand nur teilweise mischbar und bilden in einem breiten Konzentrationsbereich eine Mischungslücke. Die Mischungslücken dehnen sich auf das Intervall von 0.15 bis 97.0%Li bei 1253°C im System Mangan-Lithium, von 0.62 bis 97.3%Ba bei 1250°C im System Mangan-Barium und von 1.18 bis 97.8%Sr bei 1240°C im System Mangan-Strontium aus.
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  • Ichiji Obinata, Yo Takeuchi, Kensuke Kurihara, Masaharu Watanabe
    1964 Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 568-576
    Published: 1964
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Es wurden die Systeme Silizium-Lithium, Silizium-Barium und Silizium-Strontium mit Hilfe der Gefügebeobachtung, röntgenographischen Untersuchung und thermischen Analyse untersucht und die Zustandsbilder aufgestellt. Übereinstimmend mit in bisherigen Literaturen angegebenen Ergebnissen wurden die Verbindungen Li2Si, Li4Si, BaSi, BaSi2, SrSi und SrSi2 bestätigt, während es sich für die Existenz der Verbindungen Li3Si, BaSi3, Ba2Si7 und BaSi4 keine Anzeichen ergaben. In diesen Systemen treten folgende nonvariante Dreiphasengleichgewichte auf:
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  • 1964 Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 576a
    Published: 1964
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Please see pdf. Wrong:[Please see pdf] Right:[Please see pdf]
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  • 1964 Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 576b
    Published: 1964
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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