Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals and Materials
Online ISSN : 1880-6880
Print ISSN : 0021-4876
ISSN-L : 0021-4876
Volume 23 , Issue 11
Showing 1-22 articles out of 22 articles from the selected issue
  • Hiroshi Amano
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 621-624
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The trace amounts of copper, gallium and antimony in pure metallic silicon were determined by radioactivation method by the β-radioactivity from their precipitates. The sample was irradiated with neutron flux of 10″ n/cm2/sec, and silicon was removed from the other elements by treating with a mixture of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid. From the residue after removal of silicon, antimony was separated with the acid of manganese dioxide collector followed by organic coprecipitation method. From the filtrate from the collected manganese gallium was extracted with ether. Finally, copper was precipitated from the solution after the extraction of gallium in the same manner as antimony. Using the above mentioned method, in two samples of metallic silicon, respectively 0.016 and 0.020 ppm of copper, 0.004 and 0.012 ppm of gallium, and 0.203 and 0.230 ppm of antimony could be determined.
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  • Sakae Takeuchi, Toshio Kurosawa, Mitsuo Tezuka
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 625-629
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Methods to produce Ti in massive lumps by the reaction between TiCl4 and Mg are discussed theoretically and experimentally. These massive lumps were produced by a type of gaseous reaction by which the deposition of Ti was accompanied by the spontaneous ejection of the by-product MgCl2 out of the reaction system in the course of the reaction. From the preliminary experiments it was found that titanium subchlorides, TiCl3 and TiCl2, were produced if the reaction between TiCl4 and Mg vapours took place in space, but massive and compact Ti was deposited in crystalline form with a high efficiency when the mixed vapours of TiCl4 and Mg were caused to impinge and to react on the wall surfaces consisting of Ti-ribbons stretched in the reaction chamber held at 900∼950°C. The crystalline Ti deposited on the surfaces of the ribbons of Ti by these types of reactions was of a high purity and free from the by-product MgCl2 and excess Mg.
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  • Sakae Takeuchi, Toshio Kurosawa, Mitsuo Tezuka, Shizuo Eda, Toshio Tam ...
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 629-633
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Experiments on the production of a high purity Ti in crystalline massive form were carried out by using a large sized reaction furnace which consisted of a reaction chamber, a condensing tank for the condensation of the byproduct MgCl2 and excess Mg, and feeders of TiCl4 and Mg. The reaction chamber consists of an inner cylinder of 18-8 stainless steel, 30 cm in diameter and 195 cm in length. Inside the reaction chamber were placed cuttings or ribbons of Ti stretched net-wise in a mild steel frame. Vapours of TiCl4 and Mg evaporated in their respective boilers were injected into the reaction chamber through the nozzles at the tops of it. The reaction mainly occurs on the surfaces of the cuttings or ribbons of Ti stretched on the frame very effectively and Ti is deposited on these surfaces and grows in crystalline form, while MgCl2 vapour or excess Mg vapour is rapidly condensed in the waste tank, being ejected out of the reaction system spontaneously. The lower part of the apparatus was reconstructed so that such the operation could be made continuous without cooling the reaction chamber and breaking its vacuum system. A number of series of experiments were carried out using this apparatus, and it was found that the method of producing Ti under gaseous reaction was of a very high efficiency in the yields of TiCl4 and Mg, in being accomplished in a single process, in requiring relatively short reaction period and in producing large lumps of crystalline Ti of a high purity free from MgCl2 or Mg. All of the produced Ti lumps were densely developed in the form of beautiful large crystals on the surfaces of Ti-ribbons and safe from the danger of absorbing moisture or of oxidation in air.
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  • Sakae Takeuchi, Mitsuo Tezuka, Toshio Kurosawa, Shizuo Eda, Toshio Tam ...
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 633-636
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Factors influencing the yield of TiCl4 and Mg were studied using the reaction apparatus previously reported which were constructed for producing Ti in crystalline form by the gaseous reaction. The deposition of Ti occurs mainly on the wall surfaces of Ti-ribbons or Ti cuttings placed net-wise in the reaction chamber. The quantity of the Ti-ribbons required for providing adequate wall surfaces was found to be only about 0.5% of the deposited quantity of Ti. The yield of reaction was influenced by the method of stretching the Ti-ribbons. To obtain high yield of deposition a complete mixing of TiCl4 and Mg vapors is necessary before the reaction occurs and the flow rates of both the vapors must be precisely controlled to avoid any flow of excess TiCl4, which may be caused by fluctuation of the flow rates. The high efficiencies of reaction of 98% for TiCl4 and 80% for Mg were obtained under the above conditions.
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  • Sakae Takeuchi, Mitsuo Tezuka
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 637-641
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The purity and mechanical properties were examined experimentally on crystalline Ti produced by the reaction in the gaseous phase of TiCl4 and Mg. We found that it had a purity near that of the iodide process Ti by chemical analysis. Even if a slightly low grade of TiCl4 or Mg was used as the raw material, high purity Ti was obtained owing to the distillation effect followed by the evaporation of TiCl4 and Mg. The possibility of admixture of Fe from the construction materials of the reaction vessels was specially studied, but it was found that the admixture of Fe was extremely reduced by using a graphite lining on the inner surfaces of leading pipes of TiCl4 and Ti-coated frames and sleeves. Iron contamination can occur in the case of excess TiCl4 which may be caused by the fluctuation of the flow rate of both vapours, therefore when the control of the flow rate is kept precisely constant the admixture of Fe could be kept below 0.01%. The hardness of crystalline Ti produced at our laboratory was in the range of 82 to 100 in V.H.N and 85 in the average. Tensile and Charpy impact tests were carried out and we obtained 30∼35 kg/mm2 in tensile strength, 13∼20 kg/mm2 in yield strength, 84∼82% in reduction of area and 60∼58% in elongation. It was shown that the crystalline Ti has excellent mechanical properties of high ductility in spite of slightly higher strength than the iodide process Ti. In the impact tests the test specimens with V notch and U notch were not broken even in the low temperature range of liquid nitrogen, and it was shown that the impact value of crystalline Ti was higher as the temperature was lowered.
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  • Shizuya Maekawa, Yoshio Yoneyama
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 641-644
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Cuprizone reacts selectively with Cu at a pH 8.0∼9.5 and forms complex salts having the maximum absorbance in the proximity of 600 mμ. When Fe is masked with citric acid while Cr is oxidized Cr (VI), the coloration is not affected. This method cannot be applied to the steel containing a quarlity of nickel (II) or a little Co (II) as such material has a nature to interfere coloration increasing fugitive color. But the method is applicable to steel containing up to 0.5%Co and 10%Ni where the sample taken is reduced and the amount of cuprizone is increased. Where the pH value is well controlled at the time of coloration, any kind of decomposing acid can be applied. When Fe coexists in the sample, the color remains unchanged for some 3∼20 minutes after the addition of cuprizone. The time required for determination will be shortened by this method as the extraction by organic reagents can be omitted. Satisfactory results have been obtained by applying this method to determination of Cu in iron, steel and ores.
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  • 1959 Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 644aa
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Please see pdf. Wrong:V86 Right:V80
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  • 1959 Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 644ab
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Please see pdf. Wrong:--- Right:<0.002
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  • 1959 Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 644b
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Please see pdf. Wrong:(a) Distilled Zn powrde, (d) Electrolytic. Right:(a) Distilled Zn powder, (d) Electrolytic Zn powder.
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  • 1959 Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 644c
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Please see pdf. Wrong:[in Japanese] Right:[in Japanese]
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  • 1959 Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 644da
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Please see pdf. Wrong:[in Japanese] Right:[in Japanese]
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  • 1959 Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 644db
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Please see pdf. Wrong:(d=8.25 A/cm2) Right:(d=8.25 A/dm2)
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  • Gunji Shinoda, Tadao Sano, Tadakazu Sakurai, Tadashi Kawasaki, Hisashi ...
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 645-648
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Short time tensile tests were carried out at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 800°C on some austenitic stainless steels. The tensile strength and the elongation decreased with rising temperature up to 300°C, but they were almost constant at 300∼650°C. At this temperature range, a remarkable serrated discontinuous phenomenon appeared on the load-elongation curves. An observation of micro-structure of specimens after the high temperature tests showed the precipitation of chromium carbide along the slip bands, which was most remarkable in the specimen tested at about 600°C at which the serration of load-elongation curves was most remarkable. When chromium carbide is precipitated out during the test as fine particles, they act as a barrier for the motion of dislocations so that the slip is prevented for a moment, and this probably causes the break in the plastic deformation.
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  • Hiroshi Asada, Hideo Yoshinaga
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 649-652
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Plastic deformation in magnesium single crystals was investigated by tensile test at various temperatures (from room temperature to 400°C). The results obtained were as follows: (1) The critical resolved shear stress for basal slip is about 80 g/mm2 at room temperature, and about 60 g/mm2 at 200° and 400°C. (2) {10\bar12} twins occur in crystals for which χ\gtrsim57° at room temperature and in crystal for which χ=70° at 400°C, where χ is the angle between the basal plane and the stress axis. (3) {10\bar11}⟨11\bar20⟩ pyramidal slip occurs above 220°C, while any nonbasal slip is observed below 200°C. (4) The ductility develops remarkably above 250°C by the aid of the pyramidal slip. (5) In crystals for which χ\gtrsim35°, fracturing occurs nearly along the basal plane, while it occurs on {10\bar11} plane or other high index planes in crystals for which χ=5∼12°, below 230°C. (6) Above 250°C, fracturing occurs after necking caused by the pyramidal slip. (7) Crystals for which χ\gtrsim35° remarkably hardens by much kinking and bending at room temperature, while these kinking and bending are not observed at 400°C.
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  • Kosaburô Satô
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 653-654
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The anelastic relaxation in silver-cadmium (30 at% cadmium) alloy with a face-centered cubic structure was measured by means of a torsion pendulum in the temperature range from about 20°C to 350°C. It was found that the time of relaxation in this case changes exponentially with the reciprocal absolute temperature. The activation energy in this case was determined to be 39300±890 cal/mol; this value is smaller by 6700 cal/mol than the activation energy obtained by chemical diffusion method by means of radioactive isotopes for the same alloy. Such a difference is attributable to the differrent diffusion mechanism in the chemical as well as anelastic diffusion phenomena: In the former case the atomic diffusion is probably caused by preferential reorientation of atomic pairs in the crystal lattice, and in the latter case by the vacancy diffusion mechanism.
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  • Masamichi Kowaka
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 655-658
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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  • Masamichi Kowaka
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 659-662
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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  • Go Okamoto, Norio Sato
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 662-666
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The anodic behavior of nickel in acid and alkaline solutions were investigated to clarify the significance of the Flade potential. Three potential-plateaus of E1=+0.13−0.060 pH, E2=+0.48−0.060 pH and E3=+1.60−0.075 pH were found on the decay curve of the passive nickel, of which E2 shows the Flade potential. Beyond the potential E3, the passive nickel dissolved into the solution in the form of trivalen tnickel ion. The observed value of E1 is close to the theoretical redox potential of Ni+H2O\ ightleftarrowsNiO+2H++2\ominus, and E3 is nearly equal to the potential of the formation of Ni2O3 in alkaline solution reported by previous workers. It was concluded from these facts that the Flade potential E2 indicates the redox potential of 3NiO+H2O\ ightleftarrowsNi3O4+2H++2\ominus and E3 the redox potential of 2Ni3O4+H2O\ ightleftarrows3Ni2O3+2H++2\ominus. It should be pointed out that the passivation of nickel in acid solution does not result from the formation of a single oxide film of NiO but the formation of the higher valence oxide of Ni3O4 or a duoble oxide films of NiO and Ni3O4.
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  • Hiroshi Sakao, Kokichi Sano
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 667-670
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The importance of dissolved oxygen in liquid steel as a refining agent has led to a number of experimental studies on the equilibrium constant of the reaction of hydrogen with oxygen in liquid iron. However, certain discrepancies still remain when the recant several observations(6)(7)(8) are compared with the earlier results by Fontana and Chipman(2) and subsequently by Dastur and Chipman(5) which have generally been accepted. It is the object of this work to reexamine the magnitude of errors caused by thermal diffusion and to investigate the possible errors due to sampling methods for oxygen from liquid metal in order to explain the discrepancies of the equilibrium constant. The results of the present study are summarized as follows: (1) Errors caused by thermal diffusion are not so large as mentioned by Dastur and Chipman(4), and can be eliminated readily by adopting adequate experimental conditions. (2) There are little or no discrepancies among the oxygen determinations from the samples taken by argon-quenching, furnace cooling and suction into a silica tube. In view of the segregation of oxygen in samples, argon-quenching seems to be the most favorable sampling method for the determination of equilibrium constant of this system. Hydrogen-quenching results in considerably high apparent equilibrium constant. (3) The apparent equilibrium constants obtained are between the rusults by Gokcen(7) and by Floridis and Chipman(8).
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  • Hiroshi Sakao, Kokichi Sano
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 671-674
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Taking the previous results into consideration, a careful study has been made of both the effect of oxygen concentration in liquid iron and that of temperature on the equilibrium constant of the reaction,
    (This article is not displayable. Please see full text pdf.)
    \ oindentThe experimental results obtained are represented as follows:
    (This article is not displayable. Please see full text pdf.)
    Furthermore, from the data in the range of extreme by higher oxygen content which were obtained by using alumina crucible for the similar equilibrium, the solubility of oxygen in liquid iron in the presence of alumina was approximately estimated as follows:
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    Finally, thermodynamical calculations were done on the basis of the data obtained in this work, and showed that they were in good agreement with the reliable data in recent literature.
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  • Mikio Yamamoto, Jirô Watanabé
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 675-679
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The effects of various growth conditions on the yield percentage and orientation distribution of round-bar single crystals of zinc as grown by the Bridgman method have been studied. The experimental results obtained are as follows: — (1) In order to prepare the ingots, molten zinc was poured in air or in a vacuum or sucked up into soft glass molds and it was found that the vacuum casting is not practical and the suction casting is the best. (2) The higher is the purity of the material, the greater is the degree of success. The yield percentage falls very much when remelted zinc is used. (3) It has been found, from experiments on the production of single crystals from ingots made by sucking up, that the yield percentage decreases approximately linearly with increasing speed of lowering the mold. (4) Irrespective of the lowering speed of the mold, single crystals having such an orientation that the angle θ which the rod axis makes with the ⟨0001⟩ direction ranges from 75 to 85° are preferentially obtained. Single crystals of any orientation are produced at low lowering speeds, while those of small θ are hardly obtained at higher lowering speeds. (5) The purity of the materials does not seem to affect the orientation distribution.
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  • Mikio Yamamoto, Jirô Watanabé
    1959 Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 679-683
    Published: 1959
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The effects of the purity of the material and the lowering rate of the mold on the yield percentage and orientation distribution of round-bar single crystals (about 5 mm in diameter) of trigonal bismuth and tetragonal tin as grown by the Bridgman method have been studied. The suction casting was used for the preparation of ingots. In bismuth, for which three materials were used, the yield percentage decreases approximately exponentially with increasing lowering rate of the mold, irrespective of the purity of the material, and the higher the purity of the material the greater is the yield percentage. Single crystals with θ (the angle which the rod axis makes with the c axis)\gtrsim70° are grown most easily, while crystals with θ=10∼40° are difficult to grow. Single crystals of nearly all orientations grow at low lowering rate of the mold, but single crystals of small θ do not grow at fast lowering rates of the mold. In white tin, the yield percentage decreases approximately linearly with increasing lowering rate of the mold. As for the crystal orientation, the ⟨110⟩ direction predominates at fast lowering rates of the mold, although all orientations are possible at slow mold-lowering rates.
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