Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals and Materials
Online ISSN : 1880-6880
Print ISSN : 0021-4876
ISSN-L : 0021-4876
Volume 17 , Issue 12
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Hiroshi Sato
    1953 Volume 17 Issue 12 Pages 601-605
    Published: 1953
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The concept of superlattice which had generally been considered only in the substitutional solid solution was extended to the case of the interstitial solid solution. What becomes the object of the ordered arrangement here is the distribution of interstitial atoms among the interstitial sites. Since for such an atom not only the scattering power of X-rays is small, but also the solubility range is narrow, the effect of distributional change of interstitial solute atoms cannot easily be detected only with experimental methods and theoretical interpretation is indispensable for such a problem. Here the case of α-Fe including C atoms was treated as an example of the case for b.c.c. lattice. Martensite obtained by quenching Austenite is a sort of superlattice in which all C atoms are existing on only one sort of (\frac12,\frac12,0) sites among three sorts of such sites. To discuss the equilibrium between this and supersaturated ferrite with carbon atoms distributed at random among three sorts of sites is important also for the thermodynamics of Martensite and the interpretation of the mechanism of low temperature tempering of Martensite, etc. The results are as follows. (1) Martensite is more stable than supersaturated ferrite at low temperatures. (2) The transition point between these two states rises lineary with the carbon content and this line meets the room temperature at about 0.2%C. (3) The preferential distribution of C atoms, and consequently the tetragonality, appear spontaneously. These effects vanish discontinuously at the transition point if no stress is produced. From these results some interesting conclusions were drawn.
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  • Hiroshi Sato
    1953 Volume 17 Issue 12 Pages 605-607
    Published: 1953
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Continuing the previous report, the distribution problem of interstitial solute atoms in face centered cubic lattice was treated. As the interaction energy between the interstitial atoms is smaller in this case than in the former case and the symmetry does not change due to the ordered arrangement of them, this case is phenomenologically not so interesting as former. The general characteristics of the distribution of solute atoms are considered to be quite analogous to the superlattice problem of binary substitutional alloys with face centered cubic lattice. Judging from the magnitude of the interaction energy, the distribution of C atoms in Austenite of Fe-C system would be at random. In Fe-N system, on the other hand, the superlattice Fe4N has been observed, which is interesting because it is ferromagnetic despite of the fact that it has face centered cubic lattice.
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  • Hakaru Masumoto, Saburô Inoue, Itsujirô Ukaji
    1953 Volume 17 Issue 12 Pages 607-611
    Published: 1953
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The effect of magnetic field treatment on the magnetic properties of Ni-Co alloys has been examined with 21 kinds of specimens in the form of ring. It has been found in 1942 that the magnetic properties of some Ni-Co alloys in γ phase region are so much affected by the magnetic treatment, that the maximum permeability of 1050 of 60% Co alloy in an annealed state becomes 16,600 after cooling in a field of 1 Oe. The magnetization and magnetic hysteresis curves of the alloys showing the remarkable effect are of perminvar type, when they were cooled in a weak field from 0.1 to 0.5 Oe, and become more rectangular in form with an increase of the field strength applied during cooling; showing that there are two kinds of domains, one of which can be reoriented in a weak field, while another in a stronger one.
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  • Hakaru Masumoto, Hideo Saitô, Tadashi Shioya
    1953 Volume 17 Issue 12 Pages 612-615
    Published: 1953
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The effect of the magnetic field treatment on the magnetic properties of Ni-Co alloys has been determined with 6 kinds of specimens in the form of wire, and the cause of the effect has been considered. It has been found that the effect of the treatment on the wire-specimens is more remarkable than that in the case of the ring-specimens, which was reported in the previous paper, and that the effect is effective in the temperature range between the magnetic transformation point and about 400°; for example, it is most remarkable at about 650° in the alloy of 65% Co. Further, from the measurement of magnetization at high temperatures, it has been concluded that the effect of the treatment is in close connection with the plastic flow due to the magnetostriction at high temperatures.
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  • Mikio Yamamoto, Satoshi Taniguchi, Kinji Hoshi
    1953 Volume 17 Issue 12 Pages 615-619
    Published: 1953
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The magnetic hysteresis loops have been determined ballistically on annealed nickel-cobalt alloys covering the whole composition range, and their shape, the remanence (IR) and the coercive force (Hc) have been studied. It was found that the hysteresis loops of γ-phase alloys containing more than about 25% Co usually take an abnormal shape like those of Perminvar and Permalloy, seemingly indicating an as yet unknown, but probable, existence of some superlattice.
    For γ-phase alloys, the observed IR values are shown to lie between the two extreme theoretical values derived assuming either that all of the directions of easy magnetization in every crystal grains are energetically isotropic or that only one of them is preferred, and Hc as a function of the composition is discussed in terms of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and magnetic strain energies. It is pointed out that both IR and Hc in ε-phase alloys may be influenced by the presence of free magnetic poles at grain boundaries.
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  • Susumu Kawakami
    1953 Volume 17 Issue 12 Pages 620-623
    Published: 1953
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The thermal diffusion phenomenon was applied to molten Sn-Zn alloys. The temperatures were 650° and 400° at the hot and the cold parts respectively and their gradients were held for the horizontal direction. The experimental apparatus and method were the same as the ones used, previously. The results obtained were as follows: (1) The relation between the concentration difference Δn and the concentration of zinc was of the maximum type as shown in Fig. 1. (2) The values of Soret coefficient at the various concentrations of the solute were calculated by using the equation (I). Their magnitudes were about I0−4. (3) The Soret coefficient depends little on the concentration of zinc. Its dependence is very complicated and cannot be shown in a simple formmer. The same fact found also with Sn-Pb alloy. (4) The rate of thermal diffusion could be represented as a type of first order reaction in the ordinary chemical changes. This relation was satisfactorily applied in the dilute solutions, especially at the earlier stages of the thermal diffusion. (5) The values of rate constants k were about I0−1I0−2 (hrs−1·unit). The relations between the rate constants and the concentrations of zinc were found to be of the minimum type.
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  • Taro Ueda, Sigeru Kumei
    1953 Volume 17 Issue 12 Pages 623-627
    Published: 1953
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The change of modulus of elasticity of quenched steel compared with that of annealed steel was measured by the vibration method which can easily measure it with small test pieces suitable for perfect hardening. The test pieces used in this investigation were armco iron, carbon steels with carbon content of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.3% chrome steel, chrome-molybdenum steel, and leaded free cutting steel. The dimension of the test pieces of carbon steels were 5 mm in diameter and 100 mm in length, and that of special were 8 mm in diameter and 120 mm in length. The test pieces were quenched in oil or water at 800∼930° and tempered at 100°, 200°, 300°, 400° and 550°. The modulus of elasticity decreases several per cent by quenching and gradually recovers by tempering up to the value of annealed state. The rate of decreasing in the carbon steels by quenching decreases according as the increase of carbon content and it takes the maximum value 3.5% at 0.6%C and when the carbon content further increases it falls to 3%. The rate of decreasing of modulus of elasticity is 6∼6.5% at chrome steel, 3.3% at chrome-molybdenum steel and 4.5% at leaded free cutting steel.
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  • Mikio Yamamoto, Jirô Watanabé
    1953 Volume 17 Issue 12 Pages 628-632
    Published: 1953
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The sets of figures produced by zinc crystals as etched under various conditions always contain one kind of light figure of the hexagonal symmetry corresponding to {0001} planes and may be classified into two groups in view of the fact that the six-arrows usually appearing in the {0001} light figure point either to {10\bar10} poles (the first group) or to {11\bar20} poles (the second group). The first group of light figures may further be divided into three sub-groups: IA, IB and IC. The IA group contains the {0001} light figure and two kinds of light figures of the digonal symmetry corresponding to {10\bar10} and {11\bar20} planes, the IB group consists of {0001} and {10\bar10} light figures, and the IC group consists usually of {0001}, {10\bar10} and {11\bar20} light figures and some times contains also light figure of the digonal symmetry of rotatory reflection corresponding to {10\bar11} planes. On the other hand, the second group contains {0001}, {101\bar0}, {112\bar0}, {10\bar12}, {10\bar11}, {11\bar26} and {41\bar50} light figures. It is also shown from the form of observed light figures that {0001} and {10\bar1l} planes are developed by etching which produces the IA and IB groups of light figures, and {0001}, {10\bar10}, {11\bar20} and {1\bar011} planes are developed by etching which produces the IC group, while {0001}, {10\bar10}, {11\bar20}, {10\bar12}, {10\bar11}, {11\bar2l} (l≥6) and {41\bar50} planes are developed by etching which produces the second group.
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  • Motosada Iida
    1953 Volume 17 Issue 12 Pages 632-634
    Published: 1953
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Alloys from 85 to 100% Ba are studied principally by thermal analysis and microscopic examination, while only a limited amount of work was done to outline 60 to 80% Ba alloy region. The results obtained are as follows: (1) The maximum solubility of Al in Ba is 1.1% at the eutectic temperature 528°. (2) An eutectic exists at 92.9% Ba and 528° between Ba and Al4Ba. (3) An intermetallic compound Al4Ba melts at 1097°. (4) The diagram up to 30% Ba is found in good agreement with previous works. (5) The crystal of Al4Ba is investigated by Laue method and its C axis is found to be perpendicular to the cleavage of the crystal.
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  • Taro Ueda, Masao Tanaka, Yoshimi Yamashita
    1953 Volume 17 Issue 12 Pages 634-638
    Published: 1953
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    In order to measure the hardened depth in induction surface hardned steels easily and non-destructively, we investigated the same electro-magnetic method as already reported as a method for case depth measurement in carburized steels. [See T. Ueda, M. Tanaka, A. Nishimura, J. Jap. Inst. Metals, 16 (1952), 626]. The method consists in that surface hardened steel specimens are excited by alternating current and the induced voltages in the secondary coil are read by valvevolmeter. The hardened depth is obtainable from the relation curve between hardened depth and induced voltage. To make the most sensitive measurement, we changed the frequency of exciting current according to the hardened depth. The following two kinds of induction surface hardened carbon steels with various hardened depth were tested: of 0.7% carbon content, 21 mm dia., 120 mm length and of 0.5% carbon content, 50 mm dia., 100 mm length. The experimental results obtained by this method were as follows: (1) When the exciting current was large, sensitive results were obtainable. (2) The frequency of exciting current must be adjusted to the hardened depth. For example, by using 200∼300 c/s in about 1 mm depth, 100 c/s in about 2 mm depth, below 60 c/s in about 3 mm depth and below 30 c/s in about 4 mm depth, better results could be obtained. (3) The two kinds of test-specimens with different carbon contents and dimensions showed similar results.
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  • Hideo Takei
    1953 Volume 17 Issue 12 Pages 639-642
    Published: 1953
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    High Carbon steel (1.5%C) used in file making shows Rockwell hardness number HRC 46∼48 at hot rolled condition, but to make the next works easy, it must be softened down to HRC 20∼23. We intended to adopt isothermal annealing for this purpose. The present experiment has been carried out to aquire some practical data for isothermal annealing of the steel; for instance, the effects of annealing temperature (denoted by T1, which is higher than Ar1 transformation temperature) and annealing time, the effects of holding temperature (denoted by T2, which is lower than Ar1) and its time, on the Rockwell hardness number. The results led to the following conclusion:—The annealing temperature T1=800∼850° (1 hr) and the holding temperature T2=650∼700° (1∼1.5 hr) are found to be applied for our purpose.
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  • Tomo-o Satô, Hideo Kaneko, Katashi Masumoto
    1953 Volume 17 Issue 12 Pages 642-645
    Published: 1953
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    In order to furnish fundamental data for the production of cuprous oxide rectifier of high quality, the effect of semiconductive elements included in copper on the rectifying properties was studied. In this study, the measurement of the rectifying characteristics, their temperature dependence and the change of forward current at 0.8 V and reverse current at 6 V in running test was carried out and the following results were obtained: (1) When copper contains Si, Se, Te and Bi (1/10∼1%), it is impossible to make rectifying disk mainly because of nonadherence of the oxide layer. (2) With the increase of silicon content from 0.001% to 1%, the rectifying resistance decreases both in the conducting and reverse directions, and when copper contains 1% Si, its rectifying direction is just opposite to that of the others. (3) Upon increasing selenium content from 0.001% to 0.1%, the rectifying resistance increases in both directions. (4) Upon increasing tellurium content from 0.001% to 0.01%, the rectifying resistance increases in the conducting direction, while decreases in the reverse direction. (5) When copper contains 0.01% Bi, the rectifier shows the highest efficiency. (6) The forward current in running test increases in the first few minutes, but afterwards it is kept almost constant. (7) The creeping percentage increases in the first few minutes and afterwards increases gradually. The rectifying disk containing tellurium shows high creeping property.
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  • Tomo-o Satô, Hideo Kaneko, Katashi Masumoto
    1953 Volume 17 Issue 12 Pages 646-648
    Published: 1953
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    In order to improve the rectifying characteristics of cuprous oxide rectifier for ring modulator, the manufacturing conditions were studied and the following results were obtained: (1) The specimens of copper are oxidized at 1000° for 5 minutes and are held for 10 minutes at 600° before water quenching. (2) The cupric oxide film on the front surface of the prepared rectifying disk is mechanically striped. Then graphite and anode metal were coated on the cuprous oxide. (3) The circumference of disk is insulated with a insulating medium to prevent current leakage. (4) The oxide layer on the reverse side is chemically removed with conc. HNO3.
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  • Kazuo Hori
    1953 Volume 17 Issue 12 Pages 649-652
    Published: 1953
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    In former reports, the measurements of solidifying volume change and the synthetical judgement of custability were described as a study on castability. In the following reports, I will outline my study on runnability in its essential properties. The results obtained may be summarized as follows: (1) The effects of repeated melting were not conspicuous. (2) The effects of maximum melting temperature on runnability were remarkable and the results showed a curved line type. (3) The effects of super-heating produced results of a curved line, type too, and it was recognized that the coefficients of α, β in Bastien’s equation should have more important meaning than considered hitherto. (4) In these results, it was recognized that the variation of running velocity might be a leading factor of runnability and that it depends on the condition of molten states. (5) The effects of melting time produced variation of runnability, directly and especially, the heating time produced a remarkable variation.
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  • Takuo Ando, Hiroya Kato
    1953 Volume 17 Issue 12 Pages 652-655
    Published: 1953
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    On the determination of the weight of tin coating on tinplates, alkali electrolytic method, rapid alkali electrolytic method and iodometry are formulated in JIS H 0402. Since each of these methods, however, has some drawbacks, electrolytic iodometry which has been suggested by G. H. Bendix, W. C. Stammer and A. H. Carle was reinvestigated to remove these drawbacks. Fundamental experimentations were carried out on the following points: (1) Determination of current density and acid concentration; current density 3 A/dm2 and concentration of hydrochloric acid 1:7 are most suitable. (2) Bath voltage-time curve; when Sn and Fe in the bath are measured after initial electrolysis for 40, 55, 90, 120 sec, the amounts correspond to weight losses of panels. Microscopic structures on these panels are observed. (3) The end point of electrolysis; electrolysis for 60∼90 sec under maximum bath voltage is enough for complete dissolution of sn. (4) The effects of metallic irons upon iodometry; the effects of iron and other ions are negligible. It is found that the amount of iodine adhered to the surface of porous filter and panel is the blank source. On the basis of the results above mentioned, this electrolytic iodometry is compared with alkali electrolytic method and usual iodometry. The weight of tin coating obtained by alkali electrolytic method is 0.05 lbs/B.B. higher and that by usual iodometry is equal to the value obtained by this method.
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