Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals and Materials
Online ISSN : 1880-6880
Print ISSN : 0021-4876
ISSN-L : 0021-4876
Volume 29 , Issue 7
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Yukio Ichinose
    1965 Volume 29 Issue 7 Pages 667-672
    Published: 1965
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It was found out by the present author that Ge had the excellent refining action due to the formation of the stable and gaseous Ge monoxide in the temperature range of the vacuum melting of Fe-Ni alloys. In this paper, the effect of Ge addition on the magnetic properties of 50 Ni Permalloy was experimentally examined from the practical point of view.
    The results obtained are summarized as follows: Ge has the effect of (1) improving the magnetic properties, (2) extending the optimum annealing temperature range, (3) reducing the dependence of the magnetic properties on the cooling rate and (4) increasing the resistivity.
    Download PDF (1215K)
  • Yukio Ichinose
    1965 Volume 29 Issue 7 Pages 672-677
    Published: 1965
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It was already shown by the present author that Ge was very useful as an ideal refining agent in the vacuum melting of Fe-Ni alloys with high permeability. In this paper, it was investigated on the effect of Ge addition on the DC and AC magnetic properties of the anisotropic 50 Ni Permalloy sheet fabricated on a large scale as a toroidal core.
    The results obtained are summurized as follows: Ge addition improves the DC and AC magnetic properties and, as seen from the correlation between the coercive force and the oxygen content, it is due to removal of non-metallic inclusions by the refining effect of Ge. However, Ge addition slightly reduces the squareness ratio owing to the impurity effect, but as shown from the crystallographic examination by X-ray, it is not so difficult to make the squareness ratio higher than 95% by a more severe cold reduction.
    Download PDF (807K)
  • Yukio Ichinose
    1965 Volume 29 Issue 7 Pages 677-681
    Published: 1965
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the present paper, the effect of Ge addition on 42Ni-Fe alloys is magnetically and metallurgically investigated as in the earlier papers.
    The experimental results obtained are as follows:
    (1) The magnetic properties are remarkably influenced by the cooling condition. By rapidly cooling, Hc becomes larger and BrBm smaller, and by slowly cooling, Hc and BrBm tend to the opposite directions. The main factors controlling the magnetization process are shown to be the magneto-crystalline anisotropy in the slowly cooled state and the strain anisotropy in the rapidly cooled state.
    (2) As for the relation between the magnetic properties and the Ge content, the magnetic properties are superior at about 2%Ge addition. An interesting phenomenon is found in the alloy without Ge that its magnetic properties are unexpectedly improved by annealing at 1200°C, and from the measurement of grain size this phenomenon is considered to be due to the marked grain growth by secondary recrystallization. The alloy with 4%Ge is always magnetically inferior, and it is presumably due to the presence of the secondary phase.
    (3) The relation between Hc and the grain size in 42Ni-Fe alloys is expressed by the following formula:
    H_c=6.6 ×10^-3+1.7 ×10^-2/D.
    Download PDF (607K)
  • Yoshinori Onodera, Suguru Nakamura
    1965 Volume 29 Issue 7 Pages 682-686
    Published: 1965
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of ultrasonic vibration on the segregation coefficient upon casting of a high purity intermetallic compound semiconductor InSb was studied. The sample was sealed in an evacuated silica tube of about 7 mm in diameter to which the energy was transmitted through a low m.p. metal. The sample was frozen by normal segregation. By application of ultrasonic vibration on InSb melt containing Cd, Zn, or Sn as impurities, the segregation coefficient approaches unity, and this tendency is enhanced as the initial segregation coefficient deviates from unity. The change in the segregation coefficient is about +5% in Cd, a few % in Zn and about +30% in Sn. These changes are fairly quantitatively explained by considering the fine grained crystals grown by the application of ultrasonic vibration.
    Download PDF (1373K)
  • Yai Shiobara
    1965 Volume 29 Issue 7 Pages 687-690
    Published: 1965
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Rapid electrographic determination of magnesium in magnesium-aluminum or magnesium-nickel alloys and zirconium in zirconium-nickel alloys was worked out. The method consisted of stripping of alloy constituents into a filter paper moistened with a supporting electrolyte solution and then measuring the intensity of color developed spectrophotometrically on the paper with color reagent. Suggested electrolyte solutions were 0.5 M roschel salt for magnesium alloys and 0.5 M NH4Cl for zirconium alloys. After electrographic stripping (4 V, 10 mA, 10 sec for magnesium and 20 sec for zirconium) of alloy constituents into the filter paper coupled with pressure 2 kg per 6.25 m2, the filter paper was treated with a saturated ethyl alcohol solution of quinalizarin for magnesium and with an ethyl alcoholic solution of 0.5% alizarin for zirconium to develop the colored pattern to be measured at 560 mμ and 510 mμ, respectively. The method seems to be of special value for rapid and practically nondestructive determination of magnesium and zirconium in their alloys.
    Download PDF (468K)
  • Akira Adachi, Nobuya Iwamoto, Mitsuru Ueda
    1965 Volume 29 Issue 7 Pages 691-696
    Published: 1965
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Investigations was made on the difference of the oxide inclusions formed in the as-cast specimens and the specimens solidified under various conditions. The results obtained are as follows: (1) It is deduced that the primary inclusions, which are distorted iron chromite and have various axial ratios of ca depending upon chromium contents in steels, are composed of the mutual solution between normal iron chromite (FeO·Cr2O3) and chromic oxide (Cr2O3) at a high temperature. (2) Chromic oxide is a secondary product formed at slow solidified velocities and normal iron chromite is the stable inclusion at a low temperature. (3) The distortion degrees of iron chromite decrease in accordance with solidifying velocities. These results agree with the those obtained from various after-heat treated steels.
    Download PDF (1068K)
  • Yûki Shirakawa, Takeshi Abe
    1965 Volume 29 Issue 7 Pages 697-701
    Published: 1965
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It was found previously that the magnetic properties of Al-Ni-Co type N.K.S.-1F permanent magnets showed anomalies when heated at about 875°C and then cooled in the magnetic field (the low temperature treatment), and that the maximum energy product of these magnets subjected to this treatment is equivalent to or better than that by the high temperature (about 1300°C) treatment. The variation of optimum temperatures TL for the low temperature treatment was already investigated in a series of the magnets containing various contents of Al, Ni and Co respectively. In this paper, the TL was measured in a series of the magnets containing Cu up to 10%. The experiments show that the TL decreases as the Cu content increases, and the gradient of TL is 12.5°C per unit percent of Cu. At the same time the Curie points A2 of these magnets were measured. A2 decreases as the Cu content increases, but remains almost constant above about 3% of Cu. A2 coincids with TL at the standard composition of 3% Cu which shows the best magnetic properties, and A2 is lower than TL at a lower content of Cu and is higher at a higher content. The effect of the low temperature treatment is most excellent as the difference between A2 and TL is the smallest.
    Download PDF (609K)
  • Yûki Shirakawa, Ken’ichi Numakura
    1965 Volume 29 Issue 7 Pages 701-703
    Published: 1965
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The recrystallization rates in polycrystalline nickel-copper alloys were measured isothermally. The velocity constant of crystal growth, K, was obtained from the slope of the linear portion of the growth curve of recrystallized crystals.
    The relation between K and copper concentrations was not always simple, and showed a maximum at the composition of about 15 weight per cent copper. It was found that the relation between logK and heating temperatures follows Arrhenius equation. Therfore, the activation energy, Q, for the recrystallization of nickel-copper alloys could be obtained. The relation between Q and copper concentrations exhibited a minimum at the composition of about 12 per cent of copper.
    Download PDF (307K)
  • Yûki Shirakawa, Ichiro Oguma
    1965 Volume 29 Issue 7 Pages 703-707
    Published: 1965
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new method for measuring torsional resonance frequencies or rigidity moduli of specimens in the shape of a bar of rectangular cross section is described. The measuring system is based on the principle of the vibrator-controlled oscillator using an electrostatic pickup and driving system . The new system, in the original form, was already developed by the authors for measuring the flexural resonance frequency or Young’s modulus of elasticity for specimens in the same shape as used in the present investigation. To obtain the torsional mode of vibrations, a new arrangement of a pickup and driving electrode system was adopted.
    The modulus of rigidity was determined at room temperature for specimens (8∼10 mm in width, 1.5∼2.5 mm in thickness, and 112∼150 mm in length) of electrolytic iron, electrolytic copper, silver and coelinvar alloy, with a view to testing the performance of this experimental apparatus. The Poisson’s ratios and the compressibilities were also computed by using the rigidity moduli from the torsional resonance frequencies and the Young’s moduli from the flexural resonance frequencies.
    Furthermore, the temperature dependence of torsional resonance frequency of a specimen of the coelinvar alloy was investigated in the temperature range of about 15° to 80°C.
    Download PDF (1181K)
  • Seiki Nishi, Yoshiei Shinada
    1965 Volume 29 Issue 7 Pages 708-714
    Published: 1965
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Samples were prepared by casting molten aluminium in a CO2-process mould, a oil sand mould, a permanent mould and green sand moulds of different moisture content.
    The authors measured the density and the gas content by the vacuum fusion extraction method, and then studied the effect produced by the mould reaction under these mould conditions.
    The results were as follows:
    (1) The mould reaction on green sand moulds was most remarkable, but the effect of the CO2-process mould was very small on account of the small moisture content. In case of the oil sand mould, however, the effect of the mould reaction was negligible, with no great difference from that of the permanent mould.
    (2) The mould reaction effect was very marked at the portion near the surface, where the resulting defects caused by gas absorption were mainly observed. However, with increase of the runner length these defects tend to appear in the central portion. Most of the defects caused by the gas were observed along the grain boundary, and they were hardly observable in the grains.
    (3) Under the mould reaction, the molten aluminium absorbed the gas in excess. The factors having the greatest effect on this reaction were the casting temperature and the moisture content in the mould. Accordingly, the quantity of the gas extracted in green sand moulds was much more than that from the samples in other sorts of moulds, but the relation between the gas content and the moisture in the moulds could not determined.
    (4) The gas content in the samples depended on the synthetic effect of the mould reaction in each part of the mould. However, most of the gas absorbed by the sample were what was generated in the mould around the sample itself.
    The effect of the runner length was found to be relatively small. Further, the gas from the mould reaction at the gate portion was distinctly marked only in the sample with the shortest runner length, while the effect became weaker with the increase in the runner length.
    Download PDF (1775K)
  • Katsunobu Yamaya
    1965 Volume 29 Issue 7 Pages 714-720
    Published: 1965
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effect of cooling conditions on the graphitization of partially arc melted cast irons were investigated. As test specimens, the cast irons containing ab. 3.3 per cent carbon and 1.5 per cent silicon were used. For the cast iron specimen melted in the central position in TIG arc, various heat-treatments were carried out and annealed at 750°∼850°C.
    The following results were obtained.
    (1) When the arc melting time was increased, tempered graphites became larger, because of the slow cooling rate of the treated specimens.
    (2) When the specimens were quenched into oil or water after the arc melting, the tempered graphite sizes were almost the same regardless of the time of arc melting.
    (3) When the cooling rate from molten metal to room temperature increased, a fine tempered graphite was obtained, especially by a rapid cooling from ab. 850°C. A heat-treatment to stabilize the structure before the graphitizing treatment made it difficult to obtain a fine tempered graphite.
    The results of the present study indicate that in the practical welding of cast iron, pre- and post-heat treatments make the grahitization difficult with the rise of the temperature, because of the decrease of the cooling rate on the weld part.
    Download PDF (1500K)
  • Katsumi Okada, Kiichi Kanazawa
    1965 Volume 29 Issue 7 Pages 721-728
    Published: 1965
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In deep drawing, the operations involve two essentially different modes of deformation; the central regions of the blank crystals are stretch-formed over the punch head, while the outer parts are subjected to radial drawing between the die and the pressure plate. This experiment has been carried out to investigate the crystallographic behavior under these complex stresses given by the deep drawing of hexagonal close packed metal. The single crystals of zinc with 99.999% purity were deep drawn by using a hemispherical nose form on the punch at room temperature and at 200°C. As a result, the deep drawability deformed at room temperature depends extremely on the crystallographic angle of θ, the angle between the blank and the basal plane. The crystals having the angle of 30°\lesssimθ\lesssim60° showed a good deep drawability (the limiting drawing ratio larger than 1.5), while the other crystals fractured at the beginning stage of drawing with two modes of fracture. The crystals having the angle of θ\lesssim30° fractured by cleavage of the basal plane in the created twinns, while the crystals with the angle of θ\gtrsim60° fractured at the basal plane in the initial matrix.
    At higher temperature drawing, larger limiting drawing ratio over 1.5 were obtainned and furthermore, most interesting earing pattern due to twinning were observed. The mechanism of arising these ears are discussed by the shear direction of twinns and the basal slip direction.
    Download PDF (1065K)
  • Tokuhiko Nishida, Mitsuru Tanino
    1965 Volume 29 Issue 7 Pages 728-734
    Published: 1965
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An investigation was carried out to examine the changes in the hardness and microstructures of steels containing up to 0.5%V during tempering. The nucleation sites, the process of growth and changes in shapes of vanadium carbide during tempering were observed systematically. The results are as follows; (1) Climbing of dislocations was strongly surpressed, and the rate of softening was lowered by the addition of 0.07∼0.5%V at temperatures between 300° and 500°C. (2) In the steels containing vanadium higher than 0.1%, a secondary hardening occurred above 550°C. The peak hardness was attained by tempering for 1 hr at 625°C. The amount of the secondary hardening was approximately proportional to the vanadium content of specimens. (3) At the onset of secondary hardening, fine particles of vanadium carbide were observed along dislocation lines and on tangled dislocation nodes within the matrix. (4) It was observed that vanadium carbides grew into platelets parallel to the {100}α planes by tempering for 1∼10 hr at 700°C, then spheroidized gradually at subboundaries. (5) The orientation relationship between vanadium carbide and ferrite matrix was as follows:
    {100}_V4C3 \varparallel{100}_α-Fe, ⟨010 ⟩_V4C3 \varparallel⟨011 ⟩_α-Fe.
    Download PDF (1071K)
  • Mitsuru Tanino, Tokuhiko Nishida, Takayuki Ôoka, Katsunari Yoshi ...
    1965 Volume 29 Issue 7 Pages 734-741
    Published: 1965
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A study by the transmission electron microscope was carried out to clarify the strengthening mechanism due to the addition of a small amount of vanadium to 0.2% carbon steels which were subjected to continuous cooling from 1200°C at various rates. The results are summarized as follows: The strength of the proeutectoid ferrite of the steels containing 0.2∼0.5% vanadium and 0.2% carbon does not monotonously decrease with the decreasing cooling rates, but shows a minimum at about 600°C/min and then increases with decreasing cooling rates, reaching a maximum at about 80°C/min. Various substructures are found in the proeutectoid ferrite of the vanadium steels cooled at rates ranging 5∼200°C/min. These substructures can be classified into the following three categories; (i) dispersed dislocation loops and elongated dislocation dipoles, (ii) dispersed and lined-up vanadium carbide particles, and (iii) microtwins. The mechanism of the formation of these substructures was discussed. It was concluded that the strengthening of proeutectoid ferrite was caused by the peculiar substructures with fine vanabium carbide particles of 50 Å or less which were precipitated on dislocations.
    Download PDF (1862K)
  • Akira Moriyama, Iwao Muchi
    1965 Volume 29 Issue 7 Pages 741-742
    Published: 1965
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (217K)
feedback
Top