Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals and Materials
Online ISSN : 1880-6880
Print ISSN : 0021-4876
ISSN-L : 0021-4876
Volume 33 , Issue 10
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
  • Masataka Sugiyama, Tatsuichi Fukusako, Akira Sato
    1969 Volume 33 Issue 10 Pages 1099-1103
    Published: 1969
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Direct-rolling of molten metals was investigated for Al-Mg alloys with a wide solidification range and a low eutectic solidification temperature and Al-Zn alloys which show a relatively wide solidification range, gentle slopes of liquidus and solidus lines and solidification of the complete solid solution. The main results obtained were as follows:
    (1) The solute content had little effect on the upper limit of direct-rollable speed related to the pouring temperature.
    (2) Surface conditions of direct-rolled plates of Al-Mg alloys became worse as the magnesium content, pouring temperature and direct-rolling speed became higher. At a higher pouring temperature and a lower direct-rolling speed, the ripple mark defect in the surface of direct-rolled 2%Mg plates, whose formation could be explained by the mechanism of adhering and buckling of the metal solidified, was very deep.
    (3) At a lower pouring temperature and a slower direct-rolled speed, width defects were observed in the plates of Al-Zn alloys.
    (4) The tensile strength and the elongation of direct-rolled plates of low solute content alloys became greater as the direct-rolling speed became slower, but those of high solute content alloys became smaller.
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  • Masataka Sugiyama, Tatsuichi Fukusako, Akira Sato
    1969 Volume 33 Issue 10 Pages 1104-1108
    Published: 1969
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Properties of direct-rolled pure Al plates and their rolled and annealed sheets were investigated, and effects of direct-rolling conditions on properties of their sheets were studied. The main results obtained were as follows:
    (1) Growth directions of columnar grains of the direct-rolled plates were almost perpendicular to the direct-rolling direction at a faster direct-rolling speed and almost parallel at a slower direct-rolling speed.
    (2) As the direct-rolling speed became slower, the annealed sheets became smaller in grainsize and greater in elongation.
    (3) The soaking of direct-rolled plates showed a tendency to cause blistering in the annealed sheets.
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  • Masataka Sugiyama, Tatsuichi Fukusako, Akira Sato
    1969 Volume 33 Issue 10 Pages 1109-1115
    Published: 1969
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of direct-rolling conditions on formability, anisotropy and texture of pure aluminium sheets made from non-soaked direct-rolled plates was studied. Sheets made by unidirectional cold rolling whose direction was the same as that of direct-rolling. The main results obtained were as follows:
    (1) In pure aluminium sheets made from direct-rolled plates, at a higher direct-rolling speed the rolling texture was {112}⟨111⟩, and {112}⟨123⟩, the recrystallization texture strongly retained the rolling texture, and the cube texture {100}⟨001⟩. On the other hand, in the sheets made from plates at a lower direct-rolling speed the rolling texure was {110}⟨112⟩ and the recrystallization texture was {110}⟨001⟩ and there was no cube texture {100}⟨001⟩.
    (2) Formability of annealed pure aluminium sheets with the recrystallization texture {112}⟨111⟩, {112}⟨123⟩ was inferior to that of sheets with {110}⟨001⟩.
    (3) Annealed pure aluminium sheets with the recrystallization texture {112}⟨111⟩, {112}⟨123⟩ showed low 45° earing and those with {110}⟨001⟩ high 90° earing.
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  • Masahiro Kitada, Toshio Doi
    1969 Volume 33 Issue 10 Pages 1115-1121
    Published: 1969
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Precipitation phenomena of Nb-60Ti-5Zr superconducting alloy which are related to the critical current density were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy.
    On ageing at 350° to 500°C after solution treatment, the G.P. zone forms at first, and then the intermediate phase appears and changes to α-Ti at a relatively high ageing temperature. But the α-Ti could not be observed by ageing at temperatures lower than 400°C for about 1000 hr. The size of the G.P. zone ranges from 50 to 200 Å and the zone forms on the {112} plane of solid solution. The intermediate precipitate is a hexagonal, the lattice constants of a and c axes of the intermediate precipitate are 2.80 and 9.67 Å, respectively. The size of the intermediate phase ranges between 500 and 3000 Å, and the crystallographic relation with solid solution is ⟨0001⟩Inter.\varparallel⟨112⟩BCC. The α-Ti phase is disk-shaped and the habit plane with solid solution is {0001}α-Ti\varparallel{110}BCC and {112}BCC.
    On the other hand, the rate of precipitation in the cold worked specimen is larger than that of the solution treated one, but the precipitation process is almost similar to that of the solution treated one.
    The effect of the precipitate on the critical current density becomes more effective in the order of the G.P. zone, the intermediate precipitate and α-Ti.
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  • Michiko Hamasaki, Isao Gokyu, Shunichi Okamura
    1969 Volume 33 Issue 10 Pages 1121-1128
    Published: 1969
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The relation between ridging phenomenon and rolling or recrystallization textures has been investigated on stainless steel strips, with decreased contents of C and N (without α-γ zone). The strips have a banded structure by 95% cold rolling. It has been found that the ridging phenomenon can be classified into the following three types. One of them is caused by crystal rotation on the rolled surface, consisting of alternate ridges and grooves running in the cold rolling direction. The secondary one is closely related to the banded structure (as (001)[110], (111)[110]) produced by cold rolling. The third one shows the largest ridging on the surface of the material as the result of recovery and secondary recrystallization. Then it has been concluded that the ridging phenomenon is apparently promoted by the banded structure with the plastic anisotropy produced by cold rolling and the amount of ridging is diminished by randomization of orientations. Hence, in the 0.02∼0.12%C stainless steels, a partial randomization of the banded structure due to transformation will have an effect of minimizing the ridging. The heat treatment at 1100°C for 1∼3 min, followed by rapid cooling, is effective in breaking up or reorienting the original banded structure. This normalizing treatment may be given to the material at each hot-rolled thickness, but it will have a greater effect just before reaching the final thicknees. For the low carbon stainless steel (<0.01%C) without the α-γ zone, it is essential that initial ferrite grain size should be as small as possible and the (001)[110] banded structure would not be contained in the rolling textures.
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  • Yoichi Ishida
    1969 Volume 33 Issue 10 Pages 1129-1134
    Published: 1969
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    An array of dislocations is observed at times in the grain boundary of an annealed Fe-Mn alloy by transmission electron microscopy. In such a grain boundary the orientation relationship between the neighboring grains seems to be akin to one of the coincidence relationships and the grain boundary plane may correspond with one of the planes with a high density of coincidence lattice sites.
    Some theoretical considerations have been made on the structure and behavior of dislocations in such coincidence grain boundary. It has been concluded that the Burgers vector of the boundary dislocation constructs a three dimensional lattice which depends on the coincidence system but is independent of the boundary plane orientation. Each boundary dislocation is generally accompanied by a grain boundary step.
    The Burgers vectors of lattice dislocations from the superlattice of the vectors of the grain boundary dislocations. Therefore, the lattice dislocation having entered the grain boundary disintegrates into grain boundary dislocations when the temperature is high and grain boundary diffusion is active.
    Burgers vectors of some grain boundary dislocations are parallel to a coincidence grain boundary. However, the Peierls stress for the gliding of the boundary dislocation appears to be generally high. Firstly, such a grain boundary dislocation is usually accompanied by a grain boundary step so that its gliding along the grain boundary involves the migration of the boundary. Secondly, the coincidence grain boundary plane is usually not the slip plane of the crystal. In this experiment, the thermal stress due to the electron beam did not cause any detectable gliding to the boundary dislocation.
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  • Hakaru Masumoto, Shôhachi Sawaya, Naoji Nakamura
    1969 Volume 33 Issue 10 Pages 1134-1137
    Published: 1969
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The linear coefficient of thermal expansion, Young’s modulus and its temperature coefficient, and the density have been measured so as to investigate the effect of addition of Si, Sn or V on the anomaly of Young’s modulus, that is, the Elinvar property of nickel at high temperature. The results show that in the alloy systems, Ni-Si, Ni-Sn and Ni-V, the Elinvar property of nickel at high temperature falls down gradually to room temperature along the magnetic transformation point with increasing addition of each element and also a minimum linear coefficient of thermal expansion, the so-called Invar property, appears near the composition at which the Elinvar property is revealed.
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  • Hakaru Masumoto, Shôhachi Sawaya, Shizuo Kadowaki
    1969 Volume 33 Issue 10 Pages 1138-1140
    Published: 1969
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The linear coefficient of thermal expansion, Young’s modulus and its mean temperature coefficient, and the density have been measured so as to investigate the effect of addition of Mn, Ti or Zn on the Elinvar property of nickel at high temperature. The results show that in the alloy ststems, Ni-Mn, Ni-Ti and Ni-Zn, the Elinvar property of nickel falls down gradually along the magnetic transformation point with increasing addition of each element and also a minimum linear coefficient of thermal expansion, the so-called Invar property, appears near the composition at which the Elinvar property is revealed
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  • Hakaru Masumoto, Takeo Kobayashi, Yûetsu Murakami
    1969 Volume 33 Issue 10 Pages 1141-1145
    Published: 1969
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Following the discovery of high magnetic permeability alloys “Nimalloy”, the authors have carried out a series of experiments on the effects of additions of various elements on the properties of Nimalloy and obtained the highest initial permeability of 76000 and the highest maximum permeability of 441000. The results showed that with increasing addition of Mo to Ni-Mn binary alloys, the cooling rate required to attain the highest permeability became smaller. Accordingly, most of the alloys was baked for a long time at a temperature below the order-disorder transformation point after slow-cooling from 900°C. In the case of Mo additions, both the initial and maximum permeabilities increased gradually to maxima and then decreased gradually. The nickel alloy containing 18.63%Mn and 3.70%Mo showed the highest initial permeability of 13720 and the highest maximum permeability of 113400 when baked at 400°C for 340 and 210 hr after cooling at 5°C/hr from 900°C respectively. The alloy of the highest maximum permeability showed a coercive force of 0.0240 Oe and a hysteresis loss of 36.24 erg/cm3/cycle for the maximum magnetic induction of 5000 G, an intrinsic magnetic induction of 8010 G at 900 Oe and an electrical resistivity of 58.8 μΩ-cm at 20°C.
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  • Hakaru Masumoto, Kiyoshi Watanabe
    1969 Volume 33 Issue 10 Pages 1145-1149
    Published: 1969
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Magnetic properties of Cu-Mn-Sb alloys containing 4.98∼59.80% of Mn and 10.03∼79.71% of Sb have been measured. It has been found that the alloys consisting of about 17∼40%Mn, 10∼54%Sb and 9∼65%Cu show high coercive forces when tempered at 150°∼650°C after chill casting and the alloy consisting of 22.04%Mn, 33.00%Sb and the rest Cu exhibits the highest coercive force, IHC, of 2000 Oe and a residual intensity of magnetization, Ir, of 12 G. Further it has been determined by means of electron microscopic observation and X-ray analysis that these alloys of high coercive force contain many acicular fine particles of ferrimagnetic compound Mn2Sb dispersed in the matrices of nonmagnetic compound CuMnSb and nonmagnetic αCu phase. The high coercivity of these alloys is probably caused by the anisotropy energy of these small particles composed of a single magnetic domain.
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  • Toshihei Misawa, Tadakazu Kyuno, Wataru Suëtaka, Saburo Shimodair ...
    1969 Volume 33 Issue 10 Pages 1149-1155
    Published: 1969
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For a better understanding of the rusting mechanism of mild steel and low alloy steels, the process of formation of α- and γ-FeOOH and Fe3O4, which are important atmospheric corrosion products of iron alloys, was investigated by infrared and Mössbauer spectra, and X-ray diffraction measurements and chlorine analysis of oxidation products of Fe(II) hydroxo-complexes.
    The pH-value in solution before reaction was considered as the most important factor in determining the end products of oxidation. The precipitates were prepared by adding potassium hydroxide to the oxygen free aqueous solutions containing ferrous chloride, and the oxidation of the precipitates in solution was carried out at a room temperature while blowing the air at a constant rate of 1 L/min.
    It was found that in the present experimental condition the process of oxidation depends on the pH-value in solution as follows: in basic solution (pH 12.5∼13.5) Fe(OH)2→α-FeOOH, in the slightly acidic solution (pH 6.0∼6.5)β-Fe2(OH)3Cl→Green Rust I→γ-FeOOH, and in neutral or slightly basic solution (pH 7.0∼8.0) Fe(OH)2→Fe3O4 and β-Fe2(OH)3 Cl→Green Rust I→Fe3O4.
    The infrared spectra of Fe(OH)2 and Green Rust I, an oxidation intermediate, were obtained for the first time. The strong absorption bands due to Fe(OH)2 and Green Rust I were found at 3630 and 480 cm−1, and 3540, 800 and 670 cm−1, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy was thus proved to be a powerful tool for investigation of this field.
    The obtained results were in good agreement with the thermodynamic considerations on the relationship between pH and the solubility of Fe(OH)2.
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  • Shiro Sato, K\={o}ji Nagata
    1969 Volume 33 Issue 10 Pages 1155-1160
    Published: 1969
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A study was made on the quench sensitivity of Cu-0.3∼1.5%Cr alloys. The time-temperature-precipitation curve (T-T-P curve) was drawn by plotting the electrical conductivity of specimens which were solution treated and then directly quenched over the temperature range of isothermal heat treatment. The quench sensitivity was estimated by measuring the electrical conductivity, hardness and tensile strength. The following results were obtained:
    (1) The time-temperature-precitation curve had two noses at 800°∼850°C and 500°C.
    (2) As the chromium content increased, the nose of the upper C-cuve shifted to the left, but that of the lower C-curve shifted slightly to the right.
    (3) The precipitates at the upper nose had no contribution to strengthening. On the contrary, those at the lower nose had much contribution.
    (4) It is considered that the appearance of two noses on the T-T-P curve is due to the difference of nucleating sites. That is, at the upper nose temperature chromium would precipitate at such crystal defects as boundaries and insoluble chromium, while at the lower nose temperature chromium would precipitate at such lattice defects as vancancy clusters formed by quenching.
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  • Eiichi Kato, Harunobu Ueno
    1969 Volume 33 Issue 10 Pages 1161-1164
    Published: 1969
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The solubility of hydrogen in liquid copper alloys has been studied by the sampled method at 1150°C and under an atmospheric pressure of hydrogen. The alloying elements, zinc, sulphur, phosphorus and antimony decrease the solubility of hydrogen in alloys, while manganese and tellurium increase it. The interaction parameters obtained were summarized as follows:
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    The solubility of hydrogen in liquid pure copper determined by this method is expressed by the equation
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  • Eiichi Kato, Takao Orimo
    1969 Volume 33 Issue 10 Pages 1165-1170
    Published: 1969
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The solubility of hydrogen in liquid pure copper and binary copper alloys have been measured by Sieverts’ method under an atmospheric pressure of hydrogen. Among the alloying elements, nickel, cobalt and iron increase the solubility of hydrogen in the alloys, while tin and silicon decrease it. The results obtained are summarized as follows:
    (1) Solubility of hydrogen in liquid pure copper in the temperature range of 1096°∼1288°C.
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    (2) Interaction parameter eH(j) in liquid copper alloys:
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    (3) There is a regular periodic relation between the interaction parameter, εH(j), and atomic number of the alloying element.
    (4) There is a correlation between the interaction parameter, εH(j), and effective free electron concentration of the alloying element. Therefore, it seems that the free electron of the alloying element mainly influences the hydrogen solubility in liquid copper, while other factors such as the coulombic interaction between proton and the solute atoms and the strain caused by the difference in the size factor of solute atoms slightly influence the solubility.
    (5) A linear relation between the interaction parameters, εH(j), in liquid copper and liquid iron is observed.
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  • Ishi Miura, Hisao Honma, Susumu Hirano
    1969 Volume 33 Issue 10 Pages 1171-1175
    Published: 1969
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    In order to investigate the relations between the aspect ratio of the tungsten fiber and the tensile strength in tungsten-fiber-reinforced aluminum composites, specimens were made by means of a foil metallurgy technique which has already been reported(1). The sandwiches of aluminum foils with the tungsten fibers were changed by rolling reduction. The used fibers were 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 μ in diameter and their aspect ratios ranged from 15 to 35. The results were as follows:
    (1) The tensile strength of the composites increased linearly to the volume fraction of the tungsten fiber in composites, and also increased with the aspect ratio of the tungsten fibers. (2) The tensile strength was higher than that calculated on the basis of Kelly’s theory. These results imply that the elastic stress transfer in the fiber plays a more important role in discontinous fibers, especially with low aspect ratio in composites.
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  • Masanobu Ohmori, Yoshitoyo Yoshinaga, Takeshi Kawahata, Yoshihiko Sane ...
    1969 Volume 33 Issue 10 Pages 1176-1181
    Published: 1969
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Under hydrostatic pressure up to 3000 atmospheres, high purity cast zinc round bars were twisted at three speeds of 4, 0.4 and 0.04 rpm. In the present investigation, the pressure induced brittle-to-ductile transition was mainly discussed to clarify why the transition pressure was much lower in the present torsion than in the tensions carried out by various investigators. The large difference between the transition pressures observed in both types of deformation was explained quite well in terms of the state of stress.
    Other shear properties of zinc are also given here as functions of hydrostatic pressure and strain rate in addition to the above discussion and explanation.
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  • Renpei Yoda, Toru Watanabe, Yuichi Sato
    1969 Volume 33 Issue 10 Pages 1182-1188
    Published: 1969
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    The effects of additions of up to Al+Ti\doteqdot6% on the precipitates and recrystallization behavior of Ni-20Cr alloys have been investigated. With increasing heating temperature, discontinuous precipitation at first increases and then decreases, accompanied by recrystallization. The hardeness changes discontinuously corresponding with the change of those microstructures. The cold working of the alloys raises the possibility of the discontinuous precipitation, but the starting temperature and the brisk temperature of the discontinuous precipitation in the solution-treated alloys decrease a little. The η phase precipitates in less than a 0.3 weight ratio of aluminum to titanium, and the annealing temperature at which the γ′ (fcc Ni3Ti) phase changes into the η (hcp Ni3Ti)phase is higher than 850°C. The solid-solution temperature of precipitates is highest at approximately a 1 weight ratio of aluminum to titanum, and the γ′ (fcc Ni3(Al, Ti)) phase particles in the alloys which have the above ratio of aluminum to titanium keep stable and fine up to the higher annealing temperature, and as the result the recrystallization temperature of the alloys can be raised. But γ′-phase particles in the alloys containing more aluminum and η-phase flaky particles in the alloys containing more titanium than the above ratio respectively both coagulate and grow rapidly at a high annealing temperature, and consequently the effect of increasing the recrystallization temperature of the alloys decreases.
    Therefore the recrystallization temperature of the alloys becomes the heighest at approximately a 1 weight ratio of aluminum to titanium.
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  • Kazuyoshi Shimakage, Teruo Onozaki, Tatuhiko Ejima, Susumu Morioka
    1969 Volume 33 Issue 10 Pages 1188-1195
    Published: 1969
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    In the current investigation, the reduction rate of a nickelferrite pellet with hydrogen gas has been measured by the thermobalance method at temperatures between 400° and 900°C. The reduction process of nickelferrite has also been examined by means of X-ray analysis, infrared absorption spectra and transmission electron microscopy. The exerimental results obtained are as follows:
    (1) The beginning point of the reduction of nickelferrite with hydrogen gas is about 315°C and the reduction curves of nickelferrite pellets in the range 0 to 80% reduction agree with the experimental equation derived by Mckewan, which is commonly used for the reaction controlled by the interfacial area.
    (2) Apparent activation energies on the hydrogen reduction of the nickelferrite pellet are 15.8 kcal/mol below 600°C and 9.1 kcal/mol above 600°C, respectively. The values show an approximate agreement with those obtained previously for iron oxide.
    (3) The rate of reduction of the nickelferrite pellet is proportional to the hydrogen pressure at 500° and 700°C.
    (4) According to the data obtained from X-ray analysis and infrared absorption spectra, it is found that nickelferrite is decomposed into magnetite, metallic nickel and iron at 500°C, and magnetite, wustite, metallic nickel and iron at 700°C. The reduction products, metallic nickel and iron, finally form iron-nickel alloy.
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  • Yûki Shirakawa, Yasunori Tanji, Hiroshi Moriya, Ichiro Oguma
    1969 Volume 33 Issue 10 Pages 1196-1202
    Published: 1969
    Released: April 04, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Young’s modulus E at the magnetically saturated state was measured by a resonance frequency method, for single- and poly-crystals of Ni and Ni-Fe (fcc) alloys, and shear modulus G was also measured for the same poly-crystal specimen. Elastic parameter Sij, elastic coefficient Cij and shear modulus Gijk were calculated from Young’s modulus Eijk and compressibility κ, and these values of Ni and Ni-60%Fe alloy were as follows:
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  • Yoshiyuki Mizutani, Koichi Nakajima
    1969 Volume 33 Issue 10 Pages 1202-1207
    Published: 1969
    Released: April 04, 2008
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    Structural change of the surface layer of low carbon steels due to abrading with the same material is examined by X-ray analysis and electron microscopy, and it is seen that (1) a most favourable condition for maximum wear is characterized by the formation of a surface layer of small lattice strain and (2) the nature of the first layer formed in the process of friction plays a leading role in the wear process.
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