魚病研究
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17 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の12件中1~12を表示しています
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  • 橋本 秀夫
    17 巻 (1982 - 1983) 1 号 p. 1-10
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    The family Streptococcaceae is divided into five genera in Bergey's Manual (1974): Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Aerococcus and Gemella. The genus Streptococcus is a relatively large group of organisms. They are spherical microorganisms, characteristically arranged in chains and distributed in nature. Some are members of normal human and animal flora, and others are responsible for a variety of diseases of man, animals and fish, and some are saprophytes found in milk and dairy products.
    Three general criteria, haemolysis, antigenic structure and biochemical characteristics are useful in identification and classification of streptococci.
    The API 20 STREP system was applied and evaluated for the identification of streptococci isolated from diseased fish and stoc strains. By this system, stoc strains were identified, but clinical isolates remained unidentified.
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  • 楠田 理一, 川合 研児
    17 巻 (1982 - 1983) 1 号 p. 11-16
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
     ブリの連鎖球菌症は1974年の夏以来,全国各地の養殖場で多発するようになり,その被害は年々増大する傾向にある。本症の予防や治療法を確立するためには,その病原菌の特性を知る必要がある。そこで,ここでは本菌の発育性状,海水中における生存性,養殖漁場における分布,病魚の体内における分布,菌体産生毒素の感染におよぼす影響などについて述べた。本菌の発育可能な温度域は10~45℃で,20~37℃が至適温度である。発育可能な食塩濃度域は0~7.0%で,0%.が至適塩分濃度である。発育可能なpH域は3.5~10で,7.6が至適pHである。本菌の海水中での生存性は長く,養殖場の海水では25℃で42日以上生存する。また,本菌は夏の高水温期や連鎖球菌症の流行期には海水中,海底泥中および養殖場に野生するマサバやウマズラハギなどの腸管から検出される。自然感染魚におけるStreptococcus sp.は腎.臓・脾臓・腸管から多く検出される。とくに,重症魚では腸管から多く検出されることから,腸管は本症が進行していくうえで重要な役割を果しているものと思われる。本菌の産生する毒素のブリに対するLD50は体重10gあたり内毒素で32mg,外毒素で79mgで,内毒素の致死性が高い。しかし,外毒素は本菌の活性を高め,本症の発現に大きく関与する。
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  • 北尾 忠利
    17 巻 (1982 - 1983) 1 号 p. 17-26
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    The comparison of the cultural, biochemical and serological properties of 286 strains of Streptococcus sp. isolated from streptococcal disease of cultured yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) at various parts of Japan during the period from 1974 to 1980 were investigated.
    It was confirmed that these strains have been possessed a very similar characteristics according to the cultural and biochemical tests.
    Although some cultural characteristics of Str. sp. are most similar to those of Str. faecalis and Str. faecium, Str. sp. are not react with group D streptococcus antiserum. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the idetification method for Str. sp.
    Str. sp. were presumptively identified by bile-esculin medium (growth in 40% bile and hydrolyze esculin), eosin-methylen blue medium (no ferment lactose), a modified NaCl medium by QADRI (nochange color) and the rapid hippurate hydrolysis test by HWANG (negative reaction), and in addition, accurately identified by the slide agglutination using Str. sp. antiserum prepared with Str. sp. KGtype strain.
    Besides, Str. sp. could be detected in pur and a high frequency from brain rather than other organs of diseased fish in our own past experience.
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  • 塩満 捷夫
    17 巻 (1982 - 1983) 1 号 p. 27-31
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present author has been performed isolation of Streptococcus sp. from the brain of diseased yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) since January in 1979. This method has been useful to readily diagnose Streptococcus infection of fish with some pathological symptoms as exophthalmos, protrusive lesions on the inside surface of the opercle and the caudal peduncle, and epicarditis. Moreover, this method was confirmed to be applicable to infected fish which did not yet exhibit any pathological symptoms because of pure and sure isolation. This paper describes the results of the study on the bacterial isolation with the above mentioned method in 1979 and 1980.
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  • 城 泰彦
    17 巻 (1982 - 1983) 1 号 p. 33-37
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    Recently, streptococcal infections have been frequently observed in freshwater fishes, especially in ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis, cultured in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan.
    The first outbreak was observed in 1977. Since then, the epizootics have occured among ayu in the summer and autumn every year, and caused sereious economic losses.
    The present paper deals with occurrence, diagnostics and clinical studies of the disease.
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  • 宮崎 照雄
    17 巻 (1982 - 1983) 1 号 p. 39-47
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present author histopathologically studied on various Streptococcicoses : 1) infections with a-hemolytic bacteria in sea-cultured yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata), striped beakperch (Oplegnathus fasciatus), Japanese horse mackerel (Trachurus japonica) and striped jack (Caranx delicatissimus), 2) infections with β-hemolytic bacteria in sea-cultured Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) which were reared in fresh-water ponds. The bacteria frequently infected eyes of fishes.
    Histopathologically α-hemolytic bacteria usually caused granulomatous inflammation at infected lesions of yellowtail, striped beakperch, Japanese horse mackerel and striped jack. β-hemolytic bacteria caused systemic infection with septicemia in ayu and rainbow trout, and extensive suppurative inflammation in eyes of Japanese flounder.
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  • 柴原 敬生
    17 巻 (1982 - 1983) 1 号 p. 49-53
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    This station has been investigating race of sea-cultured fishes, amount of the production, number of fish-culturist, occurrence of diseases and amount of loss of the fish due to diseases in Mie Prefecture since 1960. And, the author has concentrated on investigation into Streptococcicosis of yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) and other sea-cultured fishes because of causing great amount of loss since 1975.
    This paper is describing the results of the investigation from 1960 through 1981 and author's opinion on prophylaxis and treatment for Streptococcicosis of yellowtail.
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  • 谷口 道子
    17 巻 (1982 - 1983) 1 号 p. 55-59
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    The relation between the streptococcicosis and the food quality was ascertained by our epidemiological reserch. The food species, quality and the way of melting for frozen food were considered to be very important promoting factors of the disease. The methods for the preventions against the disease were proposed based on a few experiments as follows:
    1. It was supposed that the cultured fishes were infected oraly through foods which were polluted by the pathogenic bacteria. To prevent the pollution by pathogen and it's growth, 1) washing and melting food fish by clean water, 2) feeding frozen food without melting and 3) feeding processed food (pellet) were proposed.
    2. It was also clarified that the deteriolated food and unbalanced nutrition were not good in maintaining the resistancy of fishes against the disease. Inorder to maintain the food quality and nutritional balance, unmelted food and vitamin mixture were used and then it was observed that the resistancy of host was remarkably increased.
    3. The resistancy of host was also influenced by organic pollution of water so that the water quality must be maintained in good condition.
    It is relatively difficult to recover yellowtail from the streptococcicosis by drags, but the preventions above mentioned are effective in early stage of disease in population level, so that the early detection and diagnosis of the disease in the fish farm is especially important. In Kochi Prefecture, the improvement of culture equipment and hygienic education have been tried among the farmer of yellowtail culture.
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  • 岩田 一夫
    17 巻 (1982 - 1983) 1 号 p. 61-65
    公開日: 2010/02/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    Mortality caused by the streptococcal disease of cultured yellowtail at fish farms in Kitaura Bay, Miyazaki Prefecture was investigated.
    The results obtained were as follows :
    1) It has been found that a severe damage of the streptococcal disease of cultured yellowtail occurred at central areas in the fish farms.
    2) It was demonstrated that a change of damage the streptococcal disease of cultured yellowtail has been closely related to a fluctuation of a haul catch of a sardine which are using as the feed of cultured yellowtail.
    From above mentioned results, it was concluded that an occurrence of the streptococcal disease of cultured yellowtail has been originally caused on the fish culturing technique.
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  • 中村 吉成
    17 巻 (1982 - 1983) 1 号 p. 67-76
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
     塩酸ドキシサイクリンの基礎及び応用試験成績の結果から次のことが要約される。1.塩酸ドキシサイクリンは,原体及び製剤とも安定であり,ブリ餌料中でも安定である。2.海水及び海水活性汚泥中の塩酸ドキシサイクリンの半減期は,7日である。3.塩酸ドキシサイクリンは,鋭い抗菌作用をもつ広範囲抗生物質である。4.塩酸ドキシサイクリンは,実験動物及びブリに対して毒作用が少なく安全である。5.塩酸ドキシサイクリンは,体内への吸収が早く,体内全域に分布する。6.塩酸ドキシサイクリンは,20~50mg/kg BWでブリの連鎖球菌症に有効である。7.塩酸ドキシサイクリンの休薬日数は,20日間である。
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  • 片江 宏巳
    17 巻 (1982 - 1983) 1 号 p. 77-85
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    Application of erythromycin (EM) to spontaneous streptococcal infections in cultured yellowtails, Seriola quinqueradiata, were reviewed.
    In vitro, EM was active against a wide range of bacteria pathogenic for fish. Stock strains and fresh field isolates of Streptococcus sp. were susceptible to EM whose MIC values varied from 0.05 to 0.2μg/ml. There were no resistant streptococcal strains so far tested. The MIC of EM was slightly affected by inoculum size and medium pH.
    In vivo, orally administered EM was effective against experimental infections with Streptococcus sp. in yellowtails. It was easily absorbed by oral administration and distributed to blood and tissues including brain within 1 h after administration. Peak levels were usually attained 1 to 3 h postadministration. Acute toxicity of EM was low in yellowtails, its LD50 value being more than 2, 000mg/kg. Abnormality possibly caused by EM was not found in yellowtails receiving the repeated doses of the drug at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day for 10 days.
    In the clinical studies, EM was effective against streptococcal infections in cultured yellowtails at doses of 25-50 mg/kg/day for 4-7 days.
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  • 菅 善人
    17 巻 (1982 - 1983) 1 号 p. 87-99
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    Spiramycin for fishery drugs had the governmental approval for production and was introduced to the market in 1981.
    This paper deals with general properties and various experimental data of spiramycin embonate concerning physicochemistry, stability, anti-bacterial activities, general pharmacology, absorption, excretion, toxicity, safety, residue and clinical studies.
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