In 2008, several episodes of mortality were recorded in cultured populations of juvenile greater amberjack reared in the southwest region of Japan. Diseased fish had asymmetrical abdominal distention and pale gills. The head kidney, trunk kidney, and spleen of every fish that was examined was enlarged and discolored. The results of all microbiological and molecular biological assays of tissues taken from diseased fish were negative for major known pathogens. Histopathologically, the disease was characterized by proliferative interstitial nephritis and proliferative splenitis associated with minute, round structures within the cytoplasm of proliferating mono-nucleated cells. Transmission trial using the enlarged trunk kidney from a naturally infected fish successfully reproduced the disease. The results indicate that this disease is caused by an infectious microorganism, and the most likely etiological agent is the minute, round structures which are probably a hitherto unknown eukaryotic microorganism.
Tenacibaculum soleae is a recently described pathogen that has been reported as the causative agent of considerable losses in sole cultures in Spain. This report documents the first case of T. soleae as an etiological agent of tenacibaculosis in farmed sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Its identification was performed employing phenotypical, serological and molecular methods. Although the sea bass isolates were homogeneous from a biochemical, chemotaxonomic and molecular point of view, they belonged to a serological group different from the type strain CECT7292, which can be of great importance in the development of future vaccines and other methods of disease prevention in sea bass industry. Virulence assays with a representative isolate confirmed the pathogenic potential for sea bass. The disease was experimentally reproduced by prolonged bath, while no mortalities could be recorded by intraperitoneal injection. The results presented here show that T. soleae must be taken into account as an important pathogen in the marine aquaculture industry.
To develop a rapid diagnosis method for Lancefield group C Streptococcus dysgalactiae (GCSD) infection, latex beads were coated with recombinant S. dysgalactiae surface immunogenic protein (rSd-Sip). The usefulness of the beads for slide agglutination tests with fish sera was examined. The beads were agglutinated with GCSD-infected sera collected from farmed amberjack Seriola dumerili. However, the beads were not agglutinated with non-infected sera or immunized sera collected from fish vaccinated with Lactococcus garvieae and Streptococcus iniae. The results demonstrate that the slide agglutination test using rSd-Sip-coated latex beads is an easy, rapid, and effective method for agglutinating antibody-detection in GCSD-infected fish.