魚病研究
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13 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の12件中1~12を表示しています
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  • 江草 周三, 中島 健次
    13 巻 (1978 - 1979) 1 号 p. 1-7
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    Twice in the past, the yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata TEMMINCK et SCHLEGEL was cultured on a large scale in the coastal waters of the Amami and Ryukyu Islands which are remote from its natural habitat, that is, the coastal waters of the Japanese main lands of Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu. The seedlings used were juveniles reared in farms in Shikoku and Kyushu and the foods used were the same frozen trash fishes as were commonly used in farms in the main lands.
    Unexpectedly, in both cases most of the cultured yellowtails were seriously affected by kudoasis. All affected fish lost entirely their commercial value, because numerous white spherical or elliptical trophozoites, mostly 1-5 mm in size, of Kudoa sp, were formed in the skeletal muscle of all parts of the body.
    Field studies made by the present authors for the past 3 years revealed the fact that coral fishes in Amami and Ryukyu waters, that is, Abudefduf sexfasciatus, A. vagiensis, Chromis isharai, C. notatus and Chrysiptera assimilis (Percida : Pomacentridae), occasionally carried trophozoites of the same Kudoa sp. in their skeletal muscle, though in these fishes the number of trophozoites in an individual fish was small, one in almost all cases. A scanning-electron-microscopic examination demonstrated that the spores of Kudoa collected from yellowtails were identical in morphology with those from coral fishes. A new name Kudoa amamiensis was tentatively given to this Kudoa.
    Through various field studies and experiments a hypothesis is possible that the source of infection of kudoasis in yellowtails cultured in Ryukyu and Amami waters may be the above-mentioned coral fishes and yellowtails may become seriously infected by eating coral fishes bearing sporulated trophozoites of the myxosporidia which happen to swim into net pens for yellowtails.
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  • 高橋 誓
    13 巻 (1978 - 1979) 1 号 p. 9-16
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    For the control of fish microsporidiosis, life history of the organism, process of infection and the possibility of chemotherapy, immunity and other remedy are discussed in this paper.
    Water temperature heavily influenced upon the shizoglony and sporogony of G. takedai, G. stephani, and G. plecoglossi.
    Artificial injection methods were established either by the skin or the oral routes.
    Drying, freezing, treatment with hot water, ultraviolet ray, cation surface active agents and chloric drugs were found effective for the inactivation of the spores of G. plecoglossi.
    Fumagillin was found to be promissing for the control of microsporidiosis (G. plecoglossi and P. anguillarum). Its effective dosage differed with species.
    The rainbow trout once infected with G. takedai seems to aquire strong immunity to the disease.
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  • 粟倉 輝彦
    13 巻 (1978 - 1979) 1 号 p. 17-18
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    A microsporidiosis of salmonid had previously been found in limited districts in Hokkaido, i. e. River Chitose and Lake Tokito. In September of 1977, a new epizootic area of this disease was confirmed by the author at Lake Akan in the eastern Hokkaido. In this report, the similarity of biological environment among epizootic areas especially the habitability for fresh pearl mussel, Margaritifra laevis is discussed.
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  • 青木 宙, 北尾 忠利
    13 巻 (1978 - 1979) 1 号 p. 19-24
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
     1974年から1977年にかけて全国各地のアユ養殖場よりVibrio anguillarum 259株を集め,各種薬剤sulfamonomethoxine(SA),chloramphenicol(CM),tetracycline(TC),nalidixic acid(NA),nitrofurazone(NF)およびtrimethoprim(TMP)に対する感受性試験を行なった。これら分離259株は,9株の感受性株を除き,1剤(NAまたはNF)から6剤(SA,CM,TC,NA,NF,TMP)耐性を示した。これら耐性250株中165株より伝達性Rプラスミドが検出された。これらアユ養殖場で流行しているV.anguillarumの血清タイプは,O抗原による血清分類では3群に別けることが出来た。本菌感染症の予防の見地から浸漬ワクチン処理法を試みた。すなわち,養殖アユを高張圧溶液(5.32%の食塩水)2分間,次いでV.anguillarumのホルマリン死菌培養液に3分間浸漬した。1ヵ月間飼育後,ワクチン浸漬魚に腹腔内生菌攻撃を行ない,有意な防禦反応が認められた。ホルマリン死菌培養液を遠心し,菌体と上澄液に別けた。菌体は生理食塩水に再浮游させた。養殖アユを5.32%の食塩水に2分間,次いで菌体浮游液または上澄液をそれぞれ3分間浸漬した。1ヵ月間飼育後,それぞれの浸漬処理魚を同様の方法で生菌攻撃を行なったところ,菌体処理魚では防禦反応を示したが,上澄液浸漬処理魚ではまったく防禦反応を示さなかった。さらに,菌体浮游液はアユに対してまったく毒性がなく,1ヵ月間の飼育期間中発死が認められなかった。一方,上澄液はアユに対し強い毒性を示すことがわかった。さらに,凍結乾燥死菌体を5,32%の食塩水に混ぜ,その溶液で3分間浸漬を行なった。飼育1ヵ月後攻撃を行ない,前者と同様に防禦反応を示した。すなわち,浸漬ワクチン処理はアユのビブリオ病の予防に有効であることが判明した。
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  • 楠田 理一, 中川 敦史
    13 巻 (1978 - 1979) 1 号 p. 25-31
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    Since 1967 the damage of cultured yellowtails by nocardial infection has been increasing year after year, and it is urgently required to take some effective countermeasures. However, chemotherapy for this infection has not yet been established, partly because tubercles formed in the diseased fish rendered drugs loss effective. Preventive measures by the use of biological characteristics of the organism and by vaccination are briefly discussed in this paper.
    1. Preventive and Control Steps from Aspects of Viability of Pathogenic Organisms in Seawater and Mode of Infection:
    In the seawater, the pathogenic bacteria could not survived long, especially all organisms being killed in the open seawater within 2 days. However, they survived more than 90 days by the addition of fish extracts at a level of 100 ppm to the open seawater. In the survery of bacterial distribution at culture farms by the fluorescent antibody method, a large number of fluorescent-positive bacteria were detected during the summer when the seawater was heavily polluted. Meanwhile, the challenge test with the water suspended with virulent bacteria revealed that the gill and the digestive system were most vulnerable to the bacteria, and that the higher the bacterial level in the bath, the greater the bacterial count in the challenged fish. From these results it can be assumed that, although the pathogenic bacteria cannot survive long in fresh open seawater, their viability is greatly strengthened in the polluted environment. Nutrients from the feed may participate in this pollution. These conditions would provide a favorable habitat for pathogenic bacteria, and thus, favor the infection if their susceptibility increases. The primary preventive steps will therefore be to minimize the outflow of extracts from the feed during thawing in the seawater, and to avoid overcrowding and overfeeding, thereby keeping the culturing enviromnent clean. Further, as injuries and malnutition of fishes are the greatest factors to increase their susceptibility, it will be essential to avoid injuries and to keep the fishes in nutritionally good condition. As sanitary procedures, accidental introduction of carrier and diseased fishes should be avoided, and dead fish must be incinerated for the prevention of further spread of the disease.
    2. Prevention with Vaccination:
    When cultured yellow tails were inoculated with killed bacteria, their serum antibody titers rose to 10, 000 in 6 weeks. Further, the effectiveness of vaccination was also demonstrated by the results from challenge tests. Therefore, it is considered that further studies on vaccination will make it possible to prevent this infection.
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  • 松里 寿彦
    13 巻 (1978 - 1979) 1 号 p. 33-34
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 室賀 清邦
    13 巻 (1978 - 1979) 1 号 p. 35-39
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    Red spot disease is one of the devastating bacterial diseases of cultured eels in Japan. The first outbreaks were observed in 1971 and the causative agent was identified as Pseudomonas anguilliseptica.
    In this paper, the pathological changes of infected fish, epidemiology, characteristics and pathogenicity of the causative agent, and immunology are briefly reviewed.
    The disease has three epidemiological characteristics: 1) it prevailed in brackish-water ponds, 2) prevailed when the water temperature was below 20°C or ceased when it rose to 27°C, and 3) prevailed among the Japanese eels (Anguilla japonica). These characteristics were found to be closely related to the nature of the causative agent.
    Based on these findings, the following methods are proposed as prophylaxis: 1) For the culture of Japanese eels, water temperature of 27°C or above and freshwater ponds are preferable, and 2) European eels are recommended for the ponds where the above conditions are not provided.
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  • 城 泰彦
    13 巻 (1978 - 1979) 1 号 p. 41-42
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    Therapeutic experiments were made on red spot disease by using artificiallyinfected eels (Anguilla japonica). As a result, oxolinic acid, nalidixic acid and piromidic acid administered by bathing or orally were found to be effective to control the disease.
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  • 木村 喬久
    13 巻 (1978 - 1979) 1 号 p. 43-52
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    The first outbreak of bacterial kidney disease of salmonid (BKD) in HOKKAIDO, Japan occurred in the autumn of 1973. Subsequently, nine outbreaks of BKD were confirmed in Hokkaido and recently occurrence of this disease in the mainland of Japan was also documented by the author.
    Currently, this disease is being monitored with keen interest in Japan.
    In this review, the pathology of the infected fish, causative organisms and therapeutic or preventing measures of BKD based on previous reports are discussed. The advantage of two diagnostic techniques (a precipitation reaction and a coagglutination test by specific antibodies absorbed protein A-containing staphylococci with heat extracted antigen of BKD) are presented.
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  • 粟倉 輝彦
    13 巻 (1978 - 1979) 1 号 p. 53-54
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    Occurrence of BKD was confirmed at 5 fish farms, 3 hatcheries and 2 aquaria for eight species of salmonid (Oncorhynchus keta, O. gorbuscha, O. kisutch, O. tschawytscha, O. nerka, O. masou, Salmo gairdneri irideus and S.gardneri gairdneri)in Hokkaido during the period from 1973 to March, 1978.
    Signs of BKD and gram positive bacteria were found among rearing O. masou and O. kisu ch at 2 out of the 5 fish farms, but could not find BKD among anadromous O. keta captured in five rivers in Hokkaido in 1976 and 1977.
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  • 佐野 徳夫
    13 巻 (1978 - 1979) 1 号 p. 55-61
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    Prior to this presentation on preventive measures against fish communicable diseases being theme of this symposium or against fish viral diseases in this subject, the author presents some comments on fish-virus ecology in fish community as the first chapter, subsequently he transfers to the second involving the preventive measures.
    In the first chapter the author points out that two transmission of vertical and horizontal infection involve in fish viral contagions and the sexual products coming from latently IPN-infected male brood make the vertical transmission spread easily by artificial fertilization with the products which never contain neutralizing antibody to IPNV.
    In the second he reviews on the virucidal effects of iodine phore, hard water or salt water and a derivative of an ascorbic acid(unpublished)and on the effect of ultraviolet irradiation as well as prophyractic effects to IPN, IHN, VHS by means of artificial active immunity, and on interferon efficacy. He emphasizes that the combined measures with active immunity and an interferon are worthy to be put in an idea as one of the prophyractic measures against viral epizootics occurring at an early stage in the developement of fish like the host of IPN, IHN and others.
    He stresses that the preventive measures employed can be polytechnic and must impose two significances of controlling the virus in the environmental water for fishes and of inactivating the agent invaded in the animals. The former can be fulfilled with environmental hygienic technology involved using disinfectants or virucidals as the chemical treatment and ultraviolet irradiation as the physical. The latter can be or may be achieved with artificially enhanced fish physiological activity like artificial immunity and artificial interferon induction as well as these combined measures.
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  • R.W. GOULD, P.J. O'LEARY, R.L. GARRISON, J.S. ROHOVEC, J.L. FRYER
    13 巻 (1978 - 1979) 1 号 p. 63-68
    公開日: 2009/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
     魚類を免疫する経済的かつ効果的なワクチン投与法として0~7.0 kg/cm2圧力の液体噴霧器を用いる方法が開発された。Vibrio anguillarumのホルマリン死菌で作られたバクテリンをギンザケ(Oncorhynchus kisutch)とニジマス(Salmo gairdneri)に噴霧したところ,抗原性および免疫原性が認められた。噴霧ワクチン(spray vaccination)と呼ばれるこの技法は病原菌Vibrio anguillarumに対して経ロワクチン(oral vaccination)より高い水準の免疫を賦与することができることが判明した。
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