The drawing method of the flat pattern for the aged women's basic dress pattern is examined. Several variations of the aged women's torso replicas (4 types of the front and 5 types of the back) are obtained from their pictures by moiré topography. From the surface developments of replicas, the points to be measured for drafting are picked up and the measurements are made using the triangluar method to draw the flat patterns for each typs. These flat patterns are developed into the basic dress patterns with the added eases of clothes which are measured by changed values of the body surface caused by the limb motions. The results are as follows: 1) The flat pattern drawn by the triangular method represents well the characteristics of the body shape, so the triangular method is efficient for drawing of a basic dress pattern. 2) The maximum amount of expansion of the body surface by limb motions is 3.2cm at the back armscye point and 1.8cm at the front each, which is commonly observed in every type of replicas. 3) Only the amount of expansion mentioned above is considered as the ease of clothes for aged women.
To seek a superior builder, the effect of chelating agents on the dispersion of iron (III) oxide particles and the deposition onto nylon fabric was studied by using three phosphates; sodium phosphate (SP), tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) and pentasodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), and sodium citrate (C-Na) . The chelating action of the builders, the ζ-potentials of particle and fabric, the distribution and the diameter of coagulated particles and the amount of particles deposited onto fabric were measured in the hard water as a function of the concentration of builder under the fixed condition of pH 10 and ionic strength of 1×10-2 at 30°C. It was found that the coagulation of particles and the deposition onto the fabric were affected by the electrical surface properties of particles due to the adsorption of chelate compound. Therefore, the substitutional builder for phosphate should be a chelating agent with high valency and superior adsorption.