Basic thermal properties and thermal insulation ability of panty hoses, tights and knee-length socks were measured. In the thermal insulation test, we measured the power loss rate from heat plate up into the atmosphere under different conditions of specimens. In one condition a heat plate was covered with specimens of no deformation; In the other condition a heat plate was covered with biaxially extended specimens. Main conclusions are summarized as follows; (1) Thermal conductance decreased inversely proportion to the thickness of specimens. Thermal conductivity of knee-length socks which were rather thick and bulky was about three times larger than that of panty hoses. (2) Thermal Insulation Value (T.I.V.) of panty hoses was below 10% and lower than that of bulky tights or knee -length socks that T.I.V. values were around 25-30%. Area enlargement of fabrics diminishes T.I.V. value by 5-10% because of the reduction of thickness. (3) Using the measured temperature of the fabric surface, we estimated the combined transmittance of fabrics and the air and calculated the thermal resistance. For panty hoses thermal resistance from the surface of fabric commanded about 60-70% in over-all thermal resistance and then the contribution of thermal resistance of fabric itself to thermal insulation was smaller than that of bulky fabrics.
The effect of structure of substrate, state of soil and washing temperature on the detergency of foam washing were investigated by kinetic method using tripalmitin and triolein as triglyceride soil. The effect of washing temperature on the removal rate of tripalmitin adhered to film increased in the following order: 50°C>70°C>30°C, and that of triolein adhered to film was insignificant. In the washing of triglyceride adhered to mesh screen, the state of soil (liquid state and solid state) affected detergency. Detergency of solid soil adhered to mesh screen resembled detergency of the solid soil adhered to film. In the washing of liquid soil, vertical fixed type of foam washing, which involves foaming action at the pore of substrate, gained high detergency, but parallel fixed type of foam washing and immersion washing showed a great decrease in the removal rate as washing time increases, because soil tends to remain at the crossing point of filaments.