When writing compositions in English, one must use suitable words and styles. If the teachers want students to write good compositions, they must be taught appropriate styles of English for each specific situation. In this report, students were first required to read Bartleby, the Scrivener written by H. Melvile and then they listened to a broadcast of it produced by the Voice of America. Later, they watched the movie version of the story. From such an intensive audio-visual study, they learned to recognize the difference of styles used in these three kinds of materials-the novel, the English radio broadcast and a movie. Such methodology must be seriously considered from various view points in every curriculum.
An educational physiology is the lowest grade in the disciplinary hierarchy which consists in pedagogy. It tries to explain pedagogy with the disciplinary hierarchy. It investigates what function of the nervous system is related to the teaching-learning process, and supports that teacher understands many factors of the teaching-learning process. According to the function of the nervous system, an educational physiology finds out new vistas about the human function and ability, and the vistas are used for correcting the view of the curriculum research and the principle of education. This paper addressed three topics under the main rubic of the school physical education in the chapter two-four of this paper. In the chapter two of this paper, the social-educational pathological phenomena in the modern society were proposed as a disorder of the interaction in the neocortex and the limbic system of the cerebrum. Although it was discussed that the inhibitory function of the cerebrum exerted an influence on the development of the motor function in the chapter three of this paper, it was suggested that the cerebrum firstly inhibited the reflex according to behavioral and motor program. Because, in general, how the cerebrum works is oriented by the social and educational value, the human activity often goes out of the biological logic by the value in which emphasis is the difference between the human being and the other animal. From a biological point of view, therefore, the character of the human being was thought as the non-specificity, and it was proposed that non-specific motor ability was promoted in the school physical education. Although the teaching-learning process of the school physical education were examined from a neurophysiological point of view on the motor learning (Sasaki & Gemba, 1982) in the chapter four of this paper, it was suggested that the instructional contents should shift from the motor learning of cerebellum (skill learning) to the motor learning of the cerebrum (cognition learning) in the cerebro-cerebellar communication systems as the grade went up in the school. In other words, it was thought that the instructional contents had to be shifted from the skill learning which memorized the motor program (the contraction pattern of the skeleton muscle) in the cerebellar cortex to the cognition learning which selected the information and planed the behavioral program in the cerebral cortex as the grate went up in the school.
In order to systematize a more effective teaching-learning program, it is necessary to know what kind of affective responces learners make in various types and styles of music. In this research we have tried to examine objectively covert affective responces of learners in various sounds by use of the semantic differential with fifteen pairs of adjectives which consist of factor of feeling, of tempo and dynamics, of mass, of touch, and of nature. The results of the present study are: (a) the difference of affective responces in music between females and males in mainly found in the factor of feeling; (b) the difference between senior and junior high school students is chiefly found in the factors of tempo and dynamics, and mass. We may say that when we systematize a teaching-learning program for senior high school students, we should pay much attention to refinement of affective responces of learners by the reinforcement of cognitive responces in music.
Saeki (1979) divided the modes of learning into 3 phases on the basis of the concept of ATI (aptitude-tratment interaction). A preference for a subject belongs to the 1st phase. In this study, the sex difference in preferences for subjects was quantitatively examined by paired comparison in primary school children of the 2nd to 6th grades. The comparison should that boys preferred athletics, sciences and sociology, and girls music and Japanese language. This trend was common in all the grades. Analysis of the characteristics of each subject is necessary to examine the development of a sex difference in the 2nd pahse of the modes of learning.
We have developed a semantic differential scales (SD) for measuring attitude toward personal computers. Students of an upper secondary school who have experience in using a personal computer are selected as subjects for the research. We have proceeded to the task by using the method to develop a Likert-type scale. As a result of the study, we have obtained a seven point SD scale with 10 items and found that the coefficient of reliability of the scale is remarkably high.
The purposes of this paper are to discuss the characteristic functions of teaching and to construct the model which manifest the structure of teaching behaviors. The term of situational judgement in teaching has been little used in our country, but it seems to be serious for microteaching. Because the microteaching instructor has a thorough knowledge of the causes why his student selects that action. From the three points of view that contain planning, imaginations and open skill regarded as teaching skill, this paper can be regarded as an attempt to present some theoretical frameworks for the study on teacher training program. (1) Situational judgement in teaching was considered synonymous with decision-making in teaching, and defined as "to make a decision what to act in teaching". (2) The process of situational judgement in teaching was considered from the information processing approach. A conceptual feed-back model of the process, which contains selective attention to teaching/learning environment, recognition of teaching/learning situation, anticipation of teaching/learning situation and decision of action in cooperation with imagination, was presented, (see Fig. 4)