As we mentioned in our previous paper (1), demands for trained educators who can use and develop the various information-educational technologies are rapidly increasing. In 1989, the Ministry of Education began requiring credits in computer science for obtaining a new teacher license. Students who plan to become teachers should be expected to become computer literate. Meanwhile the teachers in service must be retrained through some educational programs provided by the Ministry of Education, government and prefecture school boards to fulfil the new license requirement. The achievements of such programs presently are unsatisfactory in local areas such as Okinawa. In this paper, we have made several surveys of health and physical education (H/E) teachers, providers of everyday health care information to the students. We generally found that computers are quite useful to such teachers in supplying good health guidance also saving time in information processing. In detail, the results of the surveys are as follows; 1. Presently, H/E teachers are spending enormous hours in computer operation and information processing. This interferes with other educational activities, reducing their complete efficiency as teachers. 2. In spite of the higher Computer endorsement at schools, most H/E teachers have little confidence in their ability to use computer technology. 3. H/E teachers feel that the opportunities for continuing education to learn higher knowledge and skills are limited. New educational opportunities should be created by cooperation of the Ministry of Education, the local school administrators and the software-hard- ware industry. 4. "Good" software and educational technological tools should be developed to reduce unnecessary routine of H/E teachers. 5. "Good" hardware environment should be provided to reduce personal expenses of H/E teachers.
The purpose of this study was extracted the main factor and structure of achievement motivation in learning activity of physical education by factor analysis and pass analysis method. Subjects (2145) in this study were low, middle and high grade students in elementary school. This study was used questionnaire that was composed by 54 items. The major results were as follows: 1) 22 achievement motivation factors were extracted by factor analysis, 11 factors were newly extracted by this study. There were Chance, Independence, Improvement, Novel Problem, Encouragement, Approval, Praise, Environment, Discovery, Effect and Contribution. 2) Mein factor in each grade was as follows; In the low grade, main factor was Chance. In the middle grade, main factor was Cooperation. In the high grade, main factor was Achievement. 3) The relation of main factor and other factors in each grade were organized by pass analysis. In the low grade, factors of Chance, Praise and Encouragement organized a group. This group was given name of "Teaching Activity Group". In the middle grade, factors of Cooperation and Novel Problem organized a group. This group was given name of "Human Relation Group". In the high grade, factors of Achievement and Estimation organized a group. This group was given name of "Independent Learning Activity Group".
This paper aims at finding actual conditions of general citizens' view of the homemaking course and analyzing factors contributing to its formation. By using the data of a survey conducted by Takamatsu City, Kagawa Prefecture in October, 1991, we investigated actual conditions in citizens' sense of homemaking learning of boys and girls and the position of the homemaking course in aim of education. As a result, it is found that about a half of the respondents of general citizens view positively homemaking learning of boys and about 70% of them do so for the learning of girls. We applied factor-analysis to answers of 13 items concerning the attitude of upbringing and educational objectives and extracted from behavior of each item 5 factors for boys and 4 factors for girls. While in the case of boys "homemaking learning" and "domestic help" constitute the 5th factor, in the case of girls "homemaking learning" constitutes the 1st factor together with "independence as a human-being", "fertile and stout humanity", "contribution to vocational life" and "domestic help". From these results, it can be inferred that there still exists in general citizens' view of homemaking education a deeprooted sense to perceive the homemaking course as preparatory education of girls for housewives.
When understanding processes of arithmetic word problem solving are broken down into two components, translation and integration components, we explored which of the two cognitive components is more closely associated with solution accuracy in arithmetic word problems. Subjects were one hundred and seventy-four fifth-grade children. Two independent variables were experimental condition (the relational picture group, the diagram group, or the control group) and problem type (easy problems or hard problems). Three problems evaluating the translation component asked students to identify the contents of each statement of each word problem. Problems for the integration component consisted of two types of questions: diagrams and relational pictures. Prior to solving each of eight word problems, subjects under each group were asked to perform each task. The results showed that subjects in the relational picture group performed best. The results indicated that the students who solved problems involving relational pictures, that is, problems emphasizing the integration component, performed best on arithmetic word problem solving. We interpreted the results of this experiment in terms of the problem solving components.
In order to clarify the possibility of teaching of food preparation in life environment studies, this study investigated actuality and consciousness of teachers for food preparation in life environment studies. The results were as follows: 1. "Tomato" that were grown by children were used as teaching materials for food preparation in many schools. 2. The consciousness for the use of kitchen knife exceeded the actual. 3. There were two points to ameliorate in food preparation in life environment studies, one point was the cooking equipments suited lower class child size and another point was the number of children in one class.
Dance in Physical Education can be traced the ancient Greek times. Dancing as a part of physical education was not considered a meaningful from of physical education until the early part of the modern ages. During the modern ages, Lord Thomas Elliot introduced the theory that "dance is a means of education". Also during this same period of time, physical education teachers in Sweden introduced folk dancing as part of their lessons for their physical education classes. In Japan, dancing as a part of the physical education curriculum changed several times according to the social reforms of particular time periods. Nevertheless, dancing has always been incorporated into the physical education curriculum. Presently, forms of dancing, including folk dances, are now infused into the schools' course of study. Compared to other sports, dance has it own special characteristics. Dancing enables students to improve their physical health and to enhance their spiritual and psychological wellbeing. Educators have the challenge of incorporating the form of dancing into the curriculum. This paper will address the many forms of dance teaching that educators may employ into the physical education curriculum.