The purpose of this research was to design a teaching strategy on the dissolution of substances to fifth-grade students and to induce changes so that their naive conceptions regarding the water-solution phenomenon turned into scientific ones. Firstly, from a cognitive approach, a microscopic perspective of a particle model was introduced as a cognitive tool. Secondly, from a social approach, a learning environment was established where smaller group learning sessions were reconstructed in whole-class discussion sessions using an electronic board. Results of interactive analysis of verbalization activity and descriptive analysis of pre-post tests showed that: 1) change from a macroscopic to a microscopic perspective was encouraged by the introduction of the 'particle model' perspective; 2) using an electronic board on students' own initiatives as an intermediary, the process of construction of theories in small group sessions was made visual in whole-class discussion sessions; therefore, authentic questions were generated and reflective thinking proceeded, which shifted between intra-individual and inter-individual zones. These findings suggested that the teaching strategy from both cognitive and social approaches in 1) and 2) induced conceptual change regarding the water-solution phenomenon.
The purposes of this study were to (1) use Davis' Interpersonal Reactivity Index to identify the component factors of empathy among students in physical education classes and to then (2) identify any differences in those factors based on gender and class level (elementary school (4th to 6th grade), middle school, and high school students). The study was conducted by using 30 items related to empathy in physical education classes. Davis' four proposed factors, "fantasy," "personal distress," "empathic concern," and "perspective-taking" were interpreted based on the analysis of 3703 male and female subjects ranging from the 4th grade to the 11th grade. All of these factors showed a significant difference between genders, with females being higher than males. The average scores among both males and females for the factors of empathic concern and perspective-taking were significantly higher in each progressive class level, while personal distress was significantly lower. The fantasy factor was the only factor that did not show significant differences between class levels, except between elementary and middle school girls. It was thus determined that differences exist among the four "Davis factors" in physical education classes based on gender and class level.
This classroom research employed discourse/interaction analysis as well as interviews with teachers to exemplify a unique case of a team-taught lesson in a junior high school. Unlike other cases, this junior high school classroom displayed distinctive overlapping of teacher-teacher utterances that we named "sliding-in utterances". The function and characteristics of "sliding-in utterances" were discussed from the perspective of the contextual and musical nature of the utterances, and both teachers' views of each other and their students. The analysis showed that the sliding-in utterances by the Japanese teacher to the assistant language teacher entailed multi-layered functions and created a dialogic classroom environment. It was concluded that the interwoven teacher-teacher discourse emerged in this classroom as a result of the teachers' mutual attempt to share and develop their teaching philosophies and understanding of the students.
This study aimed to obtain basic materials in order to develop soccer lessons using "Task-games" which are also designed to enhance the physical fitness of the players. The games used were: "Two-goal dribble soccer", "Kickline port ball with a sideman", "Kickline portball" and "Run, run, soccer", which have proved to be highly effective as "Task-games". The participants were university students, who were asked to play those four games under various time conditions in order to record their heartbeat fluctuation and reach a level of exercise intensity at which enhancement of endurance could be expected. The results suggested a program of exercise which may have an effective level of intensity: 5 cycles of playing for 60 seconds, followed by a 90-second break for "Two-goal dribble soccer". more than 2 cycles of playing "Kickline port ball with a sideman"and "Kickline port ball" for 7 minutes, and more than 2 cycles of playing "Run, run, soccer" for 5 minutes, with a 2-minute break in-between for the last three games.
The means to evaluate pupils' opinions properly is necessary in elementary school science classes. The purpose of this research was to examine validity in the elementary school science class named "Basic science process skills" (Rezba, Sprague & Fiel). The opinions of the pupils in a sixth grade elementary school science class were classified based on "Basic science process skills". It was found that the pupils used only a few skills and the teaching could be improved in order to get them to use other skills. Based on this finding, the following class tried to improve on these problems. This resulted in pupils using skills which had not previously been used and deepening their thinking in a more scientific manner. Moreover, the utility of "Basic science process skills" was shown through this research.
The purpose of this study was to use questionnaire data to compare the differences of English Activities, and the cooperation between elementary schools and junior high schools in English Language Education, in two different prefectures. Moreover, problems concerning the issue of cooperation are revealed for Foreign Language Activities, which will be made compulsory. To make the regional difference clear, questionnaires targeted 104 elementary school teachers in Ishikawa Prefecture, where English Language Education in elementary schools has been promoted, and 73 teachers in Yamaguchi Prefecture as opposite. Questionnaires were composed of two parts: alternative questions and free descriptions. The following three issues became clear. First, it was shown that there was a difference in English activities and cooperation according to the regional difference. Second, cooperation among elementary schools was revealed in Ishikawa Prefecture. Finally, regional differences should be considered as regards the cooperation between elementary schools and junior high schools for Foreign Language Activities.