Today, a highly polymerized synthetic compound is one of the essential materials in our everyday life. Though it is very useful, it should be disposed of after the use. We have few opportunities to look into the terms vinyl and plastic, which denote a highly polymerized synthetic compounds, however, they are frequently used. The terms used in school education should be universal and make sense in everyday life. I examined the terms which are employed in elementary, junior and high school texts, considering their use on the basis of the meaning given high school chemistry text and dictionary. The results show that "vinyl"is used in the text as a soft highly polymerized synthetic compound while "plastic"denotes a hard one. These show different meanings from their original ones. In this paper, I will propose that the term "plastic" should be used in the text in stead of "vinyl"and that it is best for the pupils to study original meaning from the beginning in elementary schools.
The purposes of this study are clearing up problems about the existing method to leaven dough in making bread, developing the new method, which is to warm dough by holding it in arms and to introduce the experience of individual pupils, and evaluating the effect the class practice of the third grade in elementary school. The results are as follows; 1. All dough could rise about twice in size by pupils' temperature within this class. 2. This class and materials were evaluated favorably by most of the pupils. 3. The teacher and pupils need not get tools in and out. And further, it could be practiced without tools in cold weather. The above proves that the new method holding dough in arms is clear and useful for class practice of making bread. Each pupil could experience by himself the whole process of the dough getting warmer as the time went by.
In this study, junior high school girls, 74 first and 88 second grade, inexperienced at volleyball course were used, and they were divided in two groups, respectively. One(abbr. group P) was given a course of learning volleyball through the 'Task-games' composed in a defensive skill, and the other (abbr. group K) given a course of learning volleyball through the 'Task-games' composed in a offensive skill. After 21 lessons, group-related differences were indiscernible in improvements in learning individual (i. e. overhand and underhand pass) and group skills (i. e. positioning) for volleyball. In group P, however, an improvement in the mental image of volleyball and development of human relations were considerably noted, and then these contributed to increase of the attitude scores measured by Kobayashi Physical Education Inventory, compared with in group K. The present results suggested that a learning volleyball through the 'Task-games' composed in a defensive skill might be appropriate for female beginners in P. E. classes at junior high school.
This study of junior high school students examined the process for skill development using a cognitive approach as observed through student manipulation of a cold chisel. In particular, skill schema formation was examined. We concluded that student performance types can be divided into three main categories: cognitive preceded type. The work of the students before and after advising were graded and compared. Measurement of performance times and movement analysis were also conducted. Students were interviewed about their thinking processes during the performance of the tasks. After analyzing student comments, we found that each performance type shared common thought patterns. We were thus able to obtain a better grasp of the status of student learning, and gained valuable information on how to advise students better in the technical training classroom.
These days much emphasis has been placed on the role of internationalization in school teaching. As far as course content is concerned, it is important to consider/give consideration to teaching materials relating to cross-cultural understanding and international understanding. In this paper, I will take as axiomatic that education in international understanding has as its content understanding in a cross-cultural context. From among many different peoples I selected the art textbooks if the rapidly advancing Republic of Singapore, conducted my survey and analysed the results. Consideration was also given to the role of international understanding in art textbooks, and a comparison of the situation in our own country was made.
Degrees of difficulties of teaching subjects and activities in elementary schools and their reasons are studied from self-evaluated answers of questionnaire from elementary school teachers to investigate validity of discipline-centered pre-service curriculum in teacher producing colleges or faculties. Answers from 583 teachers are analyzed by dividing the teachers to three groups of science-oriented group, literature-oriented group and junior college according to their academic carrier. Many results are obtained as follows. Teachers have the greatest difficulties in teaching "music". Degree of difficulties in teaching "science" is greatly different between science-oriented group and literacy-oriented group. Reasons of difficulties on teaching subjects reveals that every subject has its own characteristics from standpoint of teaching. Main reasons of difficulties on teaching through all subjects are insufficiencies of teaching methods as well as teaching contents and difficulties of setting activities and teaching materials in those subjects.
This study dealt with the pupil's conceptual change about electromagnetic phenomena in the elementary school science. I made an attempt in this paper to understand and characterize the three factors related to the pupils which include experience of electromagnetic activity, attitude toward science lesson, and behavior in the science lesson. And I determined their relationship with the development of electromagnetic conception. The investigation determined 1,544 pupils' condition by using paper-and-pencil type questions in designed to clarify each factor's characteristics and its relationship with conceptual development. The findings of this study were as follows: (1) The pupils had generally experienced some electromagnetic activity at least once, but not experienced analytical ones that could make them understand how electrical appliances work. They thought that the electromagnetic phenomena were very interesting, but considered the science lesson difficult. They had generally shown inactive behavior in science lesson, especially in their self- expression activities. (2) The extent of the pupils' experience and attitude had significantly correlated with their conceptual development. But the extent of their active behavior in science lesson had not seemingly correlated with their conceptual development.