The children's intelligence have been developed by using the words that they have acquired through playing in the natural world. Particularly such the intellectual abilities show the growing tendency during the infant to the pupil in the lower grades of the elementary school. Now the circumstances of children are lost in playing places, so they have been compelled to play indoor games. It is a matter of course that they have been unable to use the words about nature. In this report, I would like to show the role of words, specially in verbs, that the children find in contacting with nature, and how to determine the basic vocabularies.
Advance organizers appearing in teaching-learning of mathematics are 'expository organizer' and 'comparative organizer' defined by Ausubel and 'model organizer' and 'application organizer' defined by the author who was suggested by Lesh and Johnson (1976). These advance organizers are deeply related to teaching material itself. Then the author, calls them by 'material-based organizer' (= MBO) and has found that MBO which facilitates learning mathematics and retention of it, is a model organizer (and application organizer) which is concrete by the sense of Piaget (concrete and representative in normal sense) and tactile. Thelen (1979) has introduced 'graphic organizer' defined by Barron. It should seem that the graphic organizer is an advance organizer arranging the cognitive structure of learners, and that the graphic organizer is an example of 'arrangement organizer' defined by the author as the advance organizer arranging the cognitive structure of learners.
This is a basic research study to make clear the cognitive process in child s learning activities. The study was undertaken to measure plethysmograph and respiratory cycles in 13 undergraduate student, as induced by observation of natural phenomena to obtain the necessary information for problem solving. Pulse rates, pulse wave amplitudes, pulse wave areas, respiration rates, respiration wave amplitudes, and respiration wave areas were analyzed as indexes by using R-mode factor analysis, R-mode cluster analysis and Q-mode factor analysis. From the results of R-mode factor analysis, the six indexes were divided into four groups. From the results of R-mode cluster analysis, the indexes were divided into two groups. The objective of this paper is to make clear the relationships among the indexes showed by R-mode factor analysis and cluster analysis. Q-mode factor analysis was used for this objective. The results showed that the six indexes should be used to analyze plethysmograph and respiratory cycles induced by the observation of natural phenomena for Q-mode factor analysis, though the indexes have the relationships showed by R-mode factor analysis and R-mode cluster analysis.
In order to clarify the learning process of children, two studies were carried out. The purpose of the experiment in the first study was to make children distinguish the difference between two phenomena. In the second study the purpose of the experiment was to make children compare volumes in a phenomenon. Both studies had the same sample and test method. Forty-four first year students in junior high school comprised the sample. Free answer style test was used. The results of the two studies are summarized as follows: 1) Children achieve the purposes of the two experiments. 2) There is a difference in the weight vectors of the phenomena investigated in the two experiments.
Training in pitch occupies an important part in music education. In class, however, identification of a pitch depends on the teacher's acoustic sense. An apparatus that enables the children to judge a pitch objectively with their sense of sight will be helpful in the training in pitch. The present study aims at developing such an apparatus by applying some instruments used for physical experiments. This paper reports the apparatus thus developed and the results of our study of pitch differences between the reference sound and the sounds produced by recorder-playing and by vocalization.
The attitudes of the senior high school boy students to the teaching materials, such as Mat, Judo, and Volleyball - Likert type test - were analyzed in the view point of the factor analysis. The five, two and three factors could be identified in Mat, Judo, and Volleyball re- spectively. These factors are named the followings; Mat Judo Volleyball (1) Social Attitude (1) Social Attitude (1) Affective (2) Favourable vs (2) Favourable vs (2) Value of Physical Unfavourable Unfavourable Education (3) Value of Motor Skill (3) Recreation (4) Physical Fitness (5) Personality The factors were rotated by the Kaiser's Varimax method and they did not have the same structure. By this reason the study of the attitudes to physical education classes must be done about only one teaching material, not as a whole.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the relation between chemical education and homemaking education in girls' high schools in Japan from the standpoint of the vicissitude of the Course of Study. In the Course of Study enacted in 1911, substances in our home life, such as foods, fabrics and so on, were taught in chemistry, and techniques and economics were taught in homemaking. In 1943, the Course of Study was extensively revised and homemaking education was positioned at the core of curriculum. At this period, the good relation between science education and home-economics education had been kept. After the World War II, an experience curriculum was adopted in school and natural organic compounds were taught as food constituents, fabrics and fuel in chemistry. However, a few description of living science appeared in home-economics textbooks. At present, discipline-centered curriculum is adopted in science education, and the chemistry of substances in our home life is scarcely instructed in upper secondary schools.
There are many trials on research and development for the innovation of teacher education all over the world, particularly the questions for traditional methods of organizing teaching practice are under discussion in many countries. In this paper, at first, I will review the prewar and postwar transition of teaching practice system mainly in our university. Based on the review I will discuss about the new methods of completing the course and the problems for the improvement of teaching practice system in relation to curriculum research and development.
In order to clarify the special features of teaching behaviors of student teachers, we performed the instructional analysis of some science lessons in the elementary school by using the method of OSIA. As a result, we confirmed that student teachers serdom used the teaching tactics categorized "substantive clarification" and "appraisal behavior" while often used the tactics categorized "initiation of substantive information" and "managerial behavior". Moreover, we found that student teachers inclined to ask the open type questions more frequently than the closed type questions in contrast with generally accepted view.