In the article, the author clarified the property of study tackled by many schools of Japan, and showed that the study is a specific variant of a curriculum development study, sampling the study of the attached elementary school of a college of education. Firstly an outline of the main process of the study of the school was described, and then a process of the curriculum development was identified, modifying Curriculum Development that was successfully performed by School Mathematics Project in England under the world-wide movement of the modernization of school mathematics. The stages of the process are as follows: 1 Identification of a need of revision or improvement, 2 Decision of the body and procedure of the development, 3 Setting up ideas of the development, and articulation, 4 Provision of information and acceptance, 5 Writing drafts and developing new materials, 6 Pilot experimentation and formative evaluation, 7 Summative evaluation, 8 Dissemination, 9 Implementation and after-care for new problems appeared. Corresponding the process of the study tackled by the school to the above stages, the author showed that the study is a kind of the curriculum development study, and that, because of its intensity of the activity of dissemination, it can be identified as a curriculum movement.
It was the aim of this study to clarify the typical characteristic of elementary school curriculum especially in science class in New Zealand. In order to attain the aim the authors collected the data by doing an on-the-spot investigation. The data capable of collecting were also taken from "Science Syllabus and Guide" and "Science Resource Unit". They were officially published by Ministry of Education of New Zealand. One of analyses used was considered a new attempt to use the graph theory. Using the method, the structure of the curriculum could be "pictured" in such a way that the vertices represent the teaching units and the conceptual relationship between the two units indicated by an edge between the appropriate vertices. The results of analyses were as follows: 1. No textbook was used in science class in elementary school. 2. As planning teaching schedule, teachers could select Units and arrange them of their own free will from Science Resource Unit. 3. The structure of Science Resource Unit has been seen to have become complicated gradually according to the increase of age when children learn them.
In this study, the psychological properties used to determine the weight of various food items were examined with two objectives: 1) to reveal the differences of the results in measuring weight either by eye or by hand, and 2) to clarify the standards which the subjects used for measuring the weight of the food items tested. The subjects of the study were 283 students of Simane University. The results were as follows: 1. As compared with the two methods used in the food-weight discrimination tests, the subjects performed better in the test by eye than in the one by hand. 2. The groups which the scored higher in the food-weight discrimination tests were utilizing background knowledges of general weight of these items as a standard for measuring the weight in the test. 3. These facts suggest that in order to improve the ability to determine the weight of various food items, it is more effective to accumulate weight knowledge through daily experience than simply to depend on such a weight perception method as hand measurement.
In this study, elementary school students' macroscopic time image was investigated by symbolic distance effect. They were presented with pairs of pictures; a grand mother, a samurai(warrior), a primitive man, a dinosaur. They were instructed to choose the member which is older. Results are as follows. (1) All graders' reaction time to choose the older member varies inversely with the steps between their order. (2) The students' "samurai" images separate from their image of a grand mother in the second grade. (3) The half of all graders' "primitive man" images of do not separate from their image of a dinosaurs. (4) Elementary school students' macroscopic time images change in the middle grades.
What is the best way for Japanese students to learn English? What is the most effective way to teach English? The key to mastering a foreign language is not to learn translated meanings but notions. Whether one is a good speaker of English or not depends on how many notions of fundamental verbs one has grasped. To use a language means to create sentences. When one is able to create his/her own sentences (not copied sentences) without difficulty, we can say that he/she can use that language. To get the notion of a word is a very helpful way of mastering a language, and we teachers should teach our students the effectiveness of using notions to learn English. In this thesis, HAVE and GET are examined. These two verbs are different in their notions. If we teachers can teach the notions to our students, they can understand the difference between these words clearly, and they can use HAVE and GET properly.