This is a basic research study to make clear the cognitive process in child's learning activities. The objective of the experiment is to make clear the difference of psycho- physiological activities between recognizing identity and difference. The study was undertaken to measure electroencephalogram (EEG) and Plethysmogram (PTG) in 10 male students, in place of children, as induced by recognizing them. Power spectrum of θ-wave, α_1 -wave, and α_2-wave in EEG, and pulse wave amplitude and period of PTG were analyzed as indexes by using R-mode factor analysis and cluster analysis. Twenty simple pictures were used for the objective. The experiment was undertaken using four stages which were of rest time (RES), perception of blue light stimula (BLS), recognizing identity (IDE), and recognizing of difference (DIF). The results are summarized as follows; (1) Activities of EEG and PTG induced by each stage of RES, BLS, IDE and DIF are different from one another. (2) EEG and PTG have common changes with each other at the stage of RES, but they show peculiar changes from each other at the stages of BLS, IDE and DIF. (3) Activities of EEG and PTG have a strong similarity between the stage of IDE and DIF. (4) Though the similarity written above (3) is pointed out from both series and parallel observations, there is no similarity or community between them except the community that EEG and PTG show peculiar changes from each other in both stages.
In order to clarify the stage of explanation by preschool children, the following investigation was carried out. Problem: The investigation asks if children's explanations differ from three to five years olds. Method: 60 preschool children comprised the sample. Five picture arrangement was used and children's explanations of their seriation were analyzed. The five pictures indicated the orders of changes of candle length. Results: The results of this investigation are summarized as follows; 1) Children of five years old could arrange five pictures serially from the longest to the shortest candle. 2) They could explain the seriation by succession law.
Concepts of rhythm are regarded not only as musical problems but also as cultural problems because their developments are influenced by historical and social factors. In the approach from the organization of learning activities which is one of the important problems in school music education it is a key to the question to catch these concepts. Every rhythm is classified into natural rhythms and creative rhythms. From this point, this study will attempt to clarify the concept of rhythm by investigating the relation between natural rhythms and creative rhythms.
Man is an open system because he is interacting constantly with the environment through the exchange of energy and information. The fact that the system is open to the environment means that it is influenced by changes in the environment. So, for any open system, the process of adaptation to these changes is one of the most fundamental problems for survival. When we think about perceptual-motor skills as a kind of adaptation, the following hypothesis can be set up. First, if skills are learned only as fixed motor patterns, then a low performance level of adaptation may be the result. On the other hand, when skills are learned as flexible motor patterns, a higher performance level in adaptation may result. Thirty six female undergraduate students participated in this experiment to test the above hypothesis. They were divided in three groups each with twelve subjects. Three learning conditions based on the degree of freedom in relation to response choice were set up and the three groups were respectively assigned to each learning condition. The task was a serial learning of basketball skills. The results were analyzed in terms of number of trials, execution time of trials, successful trials, anticipation and timing. It can be summarized as follows: 1) The group that performed under the higher degree of freedom showed a high performance level in relation to number of trials, execution time of trials, successful trials and anticipation in the situation of adaptation. 2) All tree groups showed a tendency of decrease in performance level in relation to timing in the situation of adaptation. But, this tendency was more remarkable in the group that performed under the higher degree of freedom. In general, the results showed support for the hypothesis and were interpreted as evidence in favor of the assumption that as the teaching program becomes stricter, the degree of freedom of the learner's action becomes lower. And as a consequence, it becomes more and more difficult to acquire flexible and organized skills which are so important in the process of adaptation to environmental changes.
In this report, classroom observation is achieved through the sub-categories of OSIA, focusing on the quantitative instructional evaluation of teaching skills. Analyzing the cases of the sixth grade(A) and freshman of junior high(B), I attended to improve the class by clarifing the interactional-communication processes and feeding them back to the next class. Thus, in class A, 77% of the instruction period was occupied by the teacher participation. Much of them are the information as summary and direct clarification was observed and it seems that the instructor was not able to use skills such as probing, refocusing and corrective feedback. In addition, the average time span of initiation of information was long and that of responses made by learners was short. Reviewing the protocol, the place where the interactional-communication processes actually occurred was located. In class B, 92% of the instruction involves active teacher participation of which 60% is the initiation of information. The study of classroom climate would be suggested to improve this type of classroom instruction.
In the usual cooking practice, the following problems were observed: 1) Students did not actively commit to the practice; 2) they could not participate in the whole process of the cooking practice but only a part of it. Accordingly, in an attempt to solve such problems to a certain extent, an improved learning method in the cooking practice has been devised, which we have put into practice and examined. (CHAIN LEARNING) MOGI LEARNING (simulation): In this study, we have developed and put into practice a new learning method for the planning stage of cooking, which is to further facilitate development of a new learning method. Method: Before the actual cooking, one student representing the group makes a demonstration using the cooking tools but not the actual materials and makes the others understand the cooking process in his own words and actions. Teaching Materials: "Cooking Rice and Miso soup" (6th grade of the Elementary School) Result: Much admiration to the effectiveness of the Mogi Learning was expressed by the visitors who attended our class. As for this naming, some visitors suggested that an easier term be considered.